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The net output of a sector after adding up all outputs and subtracting intermediate inputs.
Worth, desirability, or utility based on individual preferences. The total value of any resource is the sum of the values of the different individuals involved in the use of the resource. The values, which are the foundation of the estimation of costs, are measured in terms of the willingness to pay (WTP) by individuals to receive the resource or by the willingness of individuals to accept payment (WTA) to part with the resource.
Picture of a future world, usually a desired future world.
An agreement between a government authority and one or more private parties, as well as a unilateral commitment that is recognized by the public authority, to achieve environmental objectives or to improve environmental performance beyond compliance.
Measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions that are adopted by firms or other actors in the absence of government mandates. Voluntary measures help make climate-friendly products or processes more readily available or encourage consumers to incorporate environmental values in their market choices.
The carbon dioxide emissions trajectories leading to stabilization of carbon dioxide concentrations as defined by Wigley, Richels, and Edmonds
(1996) whose initials provide the acronym. For any given stabilization level, these profiles span a wide range of possibilities.
Other reports in this collection