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Usually measured as changes in Gross Domestic Product or growth in Gross Domestic Product, or as loss of welfare or loss of consumption.
Marginal cost pricing
The pricing of commercial goods and services such that the price equals the additional cost that arises from the expansion of production by one additional unit.
In the context of mitigation of climate change, conditions that prevent or impede the diffusion of cost-effective technologies or practices that would mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.
Measures intended to use price mechanisms (e.g., taxes and tradable permits) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
The point at which demand for goods and services equals the supply; often described in terms of the level of prices, determined in a competitive market, that clears the market.
Market penetration is the share of a given market that is provided by a particular good or service at a given time.
The portion of the economic potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions or energy efficiency improvements that could be achieved under forecast market conditions, assuming no new policies and measures. See also economic potential, socio-economic potential, and technological potential.
Methane is one of the six greenhouse gases to be mitigated under the Kyoto Protocol.
Method by which methane emissions, for example from coal mines or waste sites, are captured and then reused either as a fuel, or for some other economic purpose (e.g., reinjection in oil or gas reserves).
Meeting of the Parties (to the Kyoto Protocol) (MoP)
Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change serving as the Meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol. It is the supreme body of the Kyoto Protocol.
An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. See also biological options, geo-engineering.
The social, political, and economic structures and conditions that are required for effective mitigation.
The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted in Montreal in 1987, and subsequently adjusted and amended in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999). It controls the consumption and production of chlorine- and bromine-containing chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and many others.
See Meeting of the Parties (to the Kyoto Protocol).
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