Climate Change 2001:
Working Group III: Mitigation
Other reports in this collection


ADEME-European Commission, 1999: Energy Efficiency Indicators: The European Experience.ADEME, Paris.
Ahn, D., 1999: Environmental Disputes in the GATT/WTO: Before and After the US-Shrimp Case. Michigan Journal of International Law, 20, 819-870.
Austin, D., P. Faeth, R. Serôa da Motta, C.E.F. Young, C. Ferraz, Z. Ji, L. Junfeng, M. Pathak, and L. Srivastava, 1998: Opportunities for financing sustainable development via the CDM: A Discussion Draft. Tata Energy Research Institute, Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada, Institute of Environmental Economics at the Renmin University of China, and World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.
Australia, Canada, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russian Federation, and the United States of America, June 1998: Non-Paper on Principles, Modalities, Rules, and Guidelines for an International Emissions Trading Regime.
Barrett, S., 1994: Strategic environmental policy and international trade. Journal of Public Economics, 54, 325-338.
Baron, R. 1996: Economic/fiscal instruments: Taxation (i.e. carbon/energy), policies and measures for common action, Working Paper. Annex I Experts Group on the UNFCCC, OECD WPAPER No.4.
Baron, R., 1999: An assessment of liability rules for international GHG emissions trading, IEA Information Paper. International Energy Agency, Paris.
Baron, R., and J. Hou, 1998: Electricity trade, the Kyoto Protocol and emissions trading, IEA Information Paper for the Fourth Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC. IEA, Paris.
Baron, R., and A. Lanza, 2000: Kyoto commitments: macro and micro insights on trading and the clean development mechanism. Integrated Assessment, 1 (2), 137-144.
Baron, R., M. Bosi, A. Lanza, and J. Pershing, 1999: A Preliminary Analysis of the EU Proposal on the Kyoto Mechanisms. International Energy Agency, Paris.
Barros, V., and M. Conte Grand, 1999: El significado de una meta dinámica de reducción de emisiones de gases efecto invernadero: el caso Argentino (documento de trabajo). Universidad del CEMA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Bashmakov, I., 1998: Strengthening the Russian economy through climate change policies. Proceedings, Dealing with Carbon Credits After Kyoto, May 28-29, Callantsoog, Netherlands.
Bashmakov, I., 2000: Energy Subsidies and “Right Prices”. Energy Efficiency, 27, April-June 2000.
Bashmakov, I., and S. Sorokina, 1996: Refrigerator energy efficiency standards in Eastern Europe. Center for Energy Efficiency (CENEf), Moscow.
Baumol, W.J., and W.E. Oates, 1988: The Theory of Environmental Policy, Second Edition. Cambridge University Press, New York.
Begg, K., S.D. Parkinson, T. Jackson, P-E. Morthorst, and P. Bailey, 1999: Overall Issues for Accounting for the Emissions Reductions of JI Projects. Proceedings of Workshop on Baselines for the CDM, Tokyo, February 25-26, 1999, Global Industrial and Social Progress Research Institute (GISPRI).
Begg, K.G., S.D. Parkinson, Y. Mulugetta, and R. Wilkinson, 2000: An initial evaluation of CDM type projects in DC’s. Final Report to DFID.
Benner, J., 2000: Development of an International Green Certificate Trading System. Proceedings of the Fifth National Green Power Marketing Conference, August 8, Denver, CO.
Berger, J.R., 1999: Unilateral Trade Measures to Conserve the World’s Living Resources: An Environmental Breakthrough for the GATT in the WTO Sea Turtle Case. Columbia Journal of Environmental Law, 24, 355-411.
Bernstein, J., 1993: Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management regulatory and economic instruments. Urban Management Program UNDP/UNCHS, World Bank, Washington DC.
Bernstein, P.M., W. Montgomery, T. Rutherford, and G. Yang, 1999: Effects of restrictions on international permit trading: The MS-MRT model. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 221-256.
Biglaiser, G., and J.K. Horowitz, 1995: Pollution regulation and incentives for pollution-control research. Journal of Economic Management Strategy, 3, 663-684.
Biglaiser, G., J.K. Horowitz, and J.Quiggin, 1995: Dynamic pollution regulation. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 8, 33-44.
Black, D., M. Grubb, and C Windham, 2000: International Trade and Climate Change Policies. The Royal Institute of International Affairs, London.
Bluffstone, R., and B.A. Larson, 1997: Controlling Pollution in Transition Economies. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK.
Bohm, P., 1994: On the feasibility of Joint Implementation of carbon emissions reductions, Climate Change: Policy Instruments and their Implications. Proceedings of the Tsukuba Workshop of IPCC Working Group III, A. Amano (ed.), Center for Global Environmental Research, Environment Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Japan.
Bohm, P., 1997: Joint Implementation as Emission Quota Trade: An Experiment Among Four Nordic Countries. Nord, 4, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. Reprinted (with the exception of Appendix 3) in Pollution for Sale. S. Sorrell, J. Skea (eds.), Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, UK, 1999.
Bohm, P., 1998: Public investment issues and efficient climate change policy, part 1. In The Welfare State, Public Investment, and Growth. H. Shibata and T. Ihori, (eds.), Springer Verlag, Tokyo.
Bohm, P., 1999: International GHG emission trading with special reference to the Kyoto Protocol, TemaNord:506. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen.
Bohm, P., and B. Larsen, 1994: Fairness in a tradable-permit treaty for carbon emissions reductions in Europe and the former Soviet Union. Environmental and Resource Economics, 4, 219-239.
Bohm, P., and B. Carlén, 2000: Cost-effective approaches to attracting low-income countries to international emissions trading: Theory and experiment. In Studies in Climate Change Policy: Theory and Experiments, PhD thesis B. Carlén, Department of Economics, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
Böhringer, C., and T.F. Rutherford, 1997: Carbon taxes with exemptions in an open economy: A general equilibrium analysis of the German Tax Initiative. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 32(2), 189-203.
Bollen, J., A. Gielen, and H. Timmer, 1999: Clubs, ceilings and CDM: Macroeconomics of compliance with the Kyoto Protocol, The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 177-206.
Boom, J.T., 1998: Market performance and environmental policy: Four tradable permits scenarios, SOE. Foundation for Economic Research of the University of Amsterdam.
Bovenberg, L., and L. Goulder, 1999: Neutralizing the adverse industry impacts of CO2 abatement policies: What does it cost? Paper prepared for the FEEM-NBER Conference on Behavioural and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy, June, Milan, Italy.
Boyle, S., 1996: DSM Progress and lessons in the Global Context. Energy Policy, 24(4), 345-360.
Brown, M.A., M.D. Levine, J.P. Romm, A.H. Rosenfeld, and J.G. Koomey, 1998: Engineering-Economic Studies of Energy Technologies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Opportunities and Challenges. Annual Review Energy Environment, 23, 287-385.
Buchanan, J.M., and G. Tullock, 1975: Polluters, profits and political response: Direct controls vs. taxes. American Economic Review, 65(1), 139-147.
California Assembly Bill No. 1890, 1996: Chapter 854 signed September 23 1996.
Carlén, 1999: Large-country effects in international emissions trading: A laboratory test. Working Paper #15, Department of Economics, Stockholm University, Stockholm.
Carraro, C., and D. Siniscalco, (eds.), 1993: The European carbon tax: An economic assessment, Fondazione ENI, Enrico Mattei Series on Economics. Energy and Environment.
CCAP (Center for Clean Air Policy), 1998: US carbon emissions trading: Description of an upstream approach. [online:].
CEC, 1996: Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on Environmental Agreements, COM(96) 561 Final, 1996.
Chadwick, M., K. Begg, G. Haq, and T. Jackson, 2000: Environmental and Social aspects of JI -methodologies and case study results, Chapter 6. Flexibility in Climate Policy: Making the Kyoto Mechanisms Work. T. Jackson, K. Begg, S.D. Parkinson, (eds.), Earthscan, UK.
Chandler, W., 2000: Energy and the environment in the transition economies: between cold war and global warming. Westview Press, USA.
Chomitz, K., 1998: Baselines for GHG reductions: Problems, precedents, solutions. World Bank, Washington, DC.
Cole, D., and P.Z. Grossman, 1998: When is command-and-control efficient? Institutions, technology and the comparative efficiency of alternative regulatory regimes for environmental protection. Working Paper Series, Indiana University and Butler University, USA.
Conrad, K., 1996: Choosing emission taxes under international price competition. In Environmental Policy and Market Structure. C. Carraro, Y. Katsoulacos, and A. Xepapadeas, (eds.), 85-98.
Cooper, A., S. Livermore, V. Rossi, A. Wilson, and J. Walker, 1999: The economic implications of reducing carbon emissions: A cross-country quantitative investigation using the Oxford Global Macroeconomic and Energy Model. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 335-366.
Cooper, R., 1998: Toward a real global warming treaty. Foreign Affairs, 77(2), 66-79.
Corfee Morlot, J., 1998: Ensuring Compliance with a Global Climate Change Agreement. OECD Information Paper, Paris.
Cramton, P., and S. Kerr, 1998: Tradable carbon permit auctions – how and why to auction not grandfather. University of Maryland/Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.
Crawford-Smith, C., 1999: The Market for Green Power in Australia - Future Role and Implications. World Renewable Energy Congress, Murdoch University, Perth, WA.
Criqui, P., S. Mima, and L. Viguier, 1999: Marginal Abatement Costs of CO2 Emissions Reductions, Geographic Flexibility and Concrete Ceilings. An Assessment Using the POLES Model. Energy Policy, 27, 585-601.
Demaret, P., and R. Stewardson, 1994: Border Tax Adjustments under the GATT and EC Law and General Implications for Environmental Taxes. Journal of World Trade, 28(4), 5-65.
Dijkstra, B.R., 1998: The Political Economy of Instrument Choice in Environmental Policy. Groningen University, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Dixon, R.K., 1999: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Activities Implemented Jointly Pilot: Experiences and Lessons Learned. Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Downing, P.B., and L.J. White, 1986: Innovation in pollution control. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 13, 18-29.
Dutschke, M., and A. Michaelowa, 1998: Issues and open questions of greenhouse gas emission trading under the Kyoto Protocol. Discussion paper 68, HWWA, Hamburg Institute for International Economics, Hamburg.
Eaton, J., and G.M. Grossman, 1986: Optimal trade and industrial policy under oligopoly. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 100, 383-406.
Ebert, U., 1996: Naïve use of environmental instruments. In Environmental Policy and Market Structure, C. Carraro, Y. Katsoulacos, and A. Xepapadeas, (eds.), pp. 45-64.
ECMT, 1998: Efficient Transport for Europe. OECD Publications, Paris.
Edmonds, J., M. Wise, and D.W. Barns, 1995: Carbon coalitions: The cost and effectiveness of energy agreements to alter trajectories of atmospheric carbon dioxide emissions. Energy Policy, 23(4/5), 309-335.
EEA, 1997: Environmental Agreements - Environmental Effectiveness. European Environment Agency, Copenhagen.
EIA, 1998: Emissions of GHGs in the United States 1997. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, DOE/EIA-0573(97), Washington, DC.
EIA, 1999: Annual Energy Outlook 2000. Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, December 1999, Washington, DC.
Eichhammer, W., and Jochem, E., 1998: Voluntary Agreements for the reduction of CO2 GHG emissions in Germany and their recent first evaluation. Paper prepared for CAVA Workshop, Gent, Belgium.
Elbers, C., and C. Withagen, 1999: General equilibrium models of environmental regulation and international trade. Center for Economic Research, paper no. 9924, Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands.
Ellerman, A.D.,and A. Decaux, 1998: Analysis of post-Kyoto CO2 emissions trading using marginal abatement curves. Report 40, Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Ellerman, A.D., and I.S. Wing, 2000: Supplementarity: An Invitation to Monopsony? MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Climate Change. Report No. 59 (April, 2000).
Ellis, J., 1999: Experience with emission baselines under the AIJ pilot phase. OECD Information Paper, Paris.
Esty, D.C., 1994: Greening the GATT: trade, environment and the future. Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC.
Eto, J., R. Prahl, and J. Schlegel, 1996: A Scoping Study on Energy Efficiency Market Transformation by California Utility DSM Programs, LBNL-39058. Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley CA.
Eyre, N.J., 1998: A Golden Age or a False Dawn? Energy Efficiency in UK Competitive Energy Markets. Energy Policy, 26 (12), 963-972.
Fenden, P., 1998: Norwegian Industry’s Network for Energy Conservation.Industrial Energy Efficiency Policies: Understanding Success and Failure. Workshop organized by International Network for Energy Demand Analysis in the Industrial Sector, June 1998, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
Fischer, C., I.W.H. Parry, and W. Pizer, 1998: Instrument choice for environmental protection when technological innovation is endogenous. Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 99-04 (revised), Washington, DC.
Fisher-Vanden, K., 1999: Structural change and technological diffusion in transition economies: Implications for energy use and carbon emissions in China. Unpublished PhD thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Fowlie, M., 1999: The Environment and Competition in Electricity in the USA and the UK. Oxford Institute for Energy Studies, Oxford, UK.
Freeman, A.M., III, and R.H. Haveman, 1972: Clean rhetoric and dirty water. Public Interest, 28, 51-65.
Garbaccio, R., M. Ho, and D.W. Jorgenson, 1999: Why has the energy-output ratio fallen in China? Energy Journal.
Glasbergen, P., M.C. Das, P.P.J. Driessen, N. Habermehl, W.J.V. Vermeulen, K. Blok, J. Farla, and E. Korevaar., 1997: Afspraken werken. Evaluatie Meerjarenafspraken over Energie-efficiency. Ministry of Economic Affairs, Directorate-General for Energy, The Hague, 197 pp.
Goldberg, D., S. Porter, N. LaCasta, and E. Hillman, 1998: Responsibility for non-compliance under the Kyoto Protocol’s mechanisms for cooperative implementation. Center for International Environmental Law and Euronatura, Washington, DC.
Goldemberg, J., 1998: Issues & options: The Clean Development Mechanism. United Nations Development Program, New York, NY.
Golove, W., and J. Eto 1995: Market Barriers to Energy Efficiency: A Critical Reappraisal of Public Policies to Promote Energy Efficiency, LBNL-38059. Energy and Environment Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Berkeley, CA.
Goodin, R.E., 1994: Selling Environmental Indulgences. Kyklos, 47(4), 573-596.
Grubb, M., T. Chapuis, and M.H. Duong, 1995: The economics of changing course: Implications of adaptability and inertia for optimal climate policy. Energy Policy, 23(4/5), 417-432.
Grubb, M., T. Tietenberg, B. Swift, A. Michaelowa, Z. Zhang, and F.T. Joshua, 1998: GHG Emissions Trading: Defining the Principles, Modalities, Rules and Guidelines for Verification, Reporting & Accountability. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva.
Haddad, B.M., and P. Jefferis, 1999: Forging consensus on National Renewables Policy: The Renewables Portfolio Standard and the National Public Benefit Trust Fund. Electricity Journal, 12(2), 68-80.
Hadley, S., and E. Hirst, 1995: Utility DSM Programs from 1989 through 1998: Continuation or Cross Roads? ORNL/CON-405. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN.
Hahn, R.W., 1987: Jobs and environmental quality: Some implications for instrument choice. Policy Sciences, 20, 289-306.
Hahn, R.W., 1989: Economic Prescriptions for Environmental Problems: How the Patient Followed the Doctor’s Orders. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 3(2), 95-114.
Hahn, R.W., and R.N. Stavins, 1991: Incentive-based environmental regulation: A new era from an old idea? Ecology Law Quarterly, 18(1), 1-42.
Hahn, R.W., and R.N. Stavins, 1999: What has Kyoto wrought? The real architecture of international tradable permit markets, working paper. Cambridge, MA.
Haites, E., 1998: International emissions trading and compliance with GHG limitation commitments. Working Paper W70, International Academy of the Environment.
Haites, E., and A. Proestos, 2000: Suitability of non-energy GHGs for emissions trading. In Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: Scientific Understanding, Control and Implementation. J. van Ham, A.P.M. Baede, L.A. Meyer, R. Ybema, (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 417-424.
Haites, E., and F. Yamin, 2000: The Clean Development Mechanism: Proposals for its operation and governance. Global Environmental Change, 10(1), 27-45.
Han, K., and J.B. Braden, 1996: Environment and trade: New evidence from US manufacturing. Unpublished research paper, Department of Economics, University of Illinois, and Department of Agriculture and Consumer Economic, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, IL.
Hargrave, T., N. Helme, and I. Puhl, 1998: Options for simplifying baseline setting for Joint Implementation and Clean Development Mechanism projects. Center for Clean Air Policy (CCAP), Washington, DC.
Harrison, D., and T. Schatzki, 2000: Certifying baselines for credit-based greenhouse gas trading programs: Lessons from experience with environmental and non-environmental programs. EPRI, Palo Alto, CA.
Hassett, K.A., and G.E. Metcalf, 1995: Energy tax credits and residential conservation investment: Evidence from panel data. Journal of Public Economics, 57, 201-217.
Hassing, P., and M. S. Mendis, 1999: An international market framework for CDM transactions. Paper presented at the UNFCCC technical workshop, Bonn, Germany.
Hauch, J., 1999: Elephant – A Simulation Model for Environmental Regulation at Nordic Energy Markets. Ph.D. thesis, Danish Economic Council, Copenhagen.
Hoel, M., 1993: Harmonization of carbon taxes in international climate agreements. Environmental and Resource Economics, 3(3), 221-232.
Hoel, M., 1996: Should a carbon tax be differentiated across sectors? Journal of Public Economics, 59(1), 17-32.
Hoel, M., 1997: Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems. Journal of Public Economics, 66, 199-224.
Hoel, M., 1998: Emission taxes versus other environmental policies. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 100(1), 79-104.
Hoel, M., and L. Karp, 1998: Taxes versus quotas for a stock pollutant. Working Paper No. 885. Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy (CUDARE). University of Berkeley, California.
Holt, E., 2000a: Green Power in Competitive Markets, 1999. Electric Power Research Institute, TR-114210, Palo Alto, CA.
Holt, E., 2000b: Green Pricing Update, 1999. Electric Power Research Institute, TR-114211, Palo Alto, CA.
Holt, E., and R. Wiser, 1998: Understanding Consumer Demand for Green Power. National Wind Coordinating Committee.
Honma, S., 1978: Document 0.25: Was the Muskie standards successful? (in Japanese).
Howarth, R.B., and M. Winslow 1994: Energy Use and Climate Stabilization: Integrating Pricing and Regulatory Policies. Energy: The International Journal.
Huber, R.M., J. Ruitenbeek, and R. Serôa da Motta, 1999: Market-Based Instruments for Environmental Policymaking in Latin America and the Caribbean: Lessons from Eleven Countries. World Bank Discussion Paper No. 381, World Bank, Washington, DC.
Hunt, S., and G. Shuttleworth, 1996: Competition and Choice in Electricity. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.
IEA (International Energy Agency), 1997a: The directive on the EU electricity market. IEA, Paris.
IEA, 1997b: Energy Efficiency Initiative, Vol. 1. IEA, Paris.
IEA, 1998a: Energy Policies in IEA Countries. OECD Publications, Paris.
IEA, 1998b: World Energy Outlook. IEA, Paris.
IEA, 1999a: Electricity Market Reform: An IEA Handbook. IEA, Paris.
IEA, 1999b: Looking at Energy Subsidies: Getting the Prices Right. World Energy Outlook, 1999 Insights, IEA, Paris.
IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
IPCC, 2000: Special Report on Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer (SRTT). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPSEP, 1995: Cutting Carbon Emissions: Burden or Benefit? A Summary. In Energy Policy in the Greenhouse, Volume II, International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths, El Cerrito, CA.
Iwahashi, T., 1998: Basic Design of a Domestic System of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Osaka Law Review, 48(3), 857-890.
Jackson, J.H., 2000: Comments on Shrimp/Turtle and the Product/Process Distinction, European Journal International Law, 11(2).
Jacoby, H., and I.S. Wing, 1999: Adjustment time, capital malleability and policy cost. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 73-92.
Jaffe, A.B., and R.N. Stavins, 1995: Dynamic incentives of environmental regulations: The effects of alternative policy instruments on technological diffusion. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 29, S43-S63.
Japan Energy Conservation Center, 1997: Energy Conservation Handbook, Japan.
Jepma, C.J., 1999: Determining a baseline for project co-operation under the Kyoto Protocol: a general overview. Paper presented at the GISPRI baseline workshop, 25-26 February, Tokyo, Japan.
Jepma, C.J., and W. van der Gaast, (eds.), 1999: On the Compatibility of Flexibility Instrument. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Jepma, C.J., W. van der Gaast, and E. Woerdman, 1998: The compatibility of flexible instruments under the Kyoto Protocol. Dutch National Research Program on Transboundary Global Air Pollution and Climate Change, Paterswolde, Netherlands.
JIQ, 1998: AIJ Pilot Phase: A Mile Wide but only an Inch Deep. Joint Implementation Quarterly, 4(3).
Joskow, P.L., and R. Schmalensee, 1988: The political economy of market-based environmental policy: The U.S. acid rain program. Journal of Law and Economics, 41, 37-83.
Jung, C., K. Krutilla, and R. Boyd, 1996: Incentives for advanced pollution abatement technology at the industry level: An evaluation of policy alternatives. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 30, 95-111.
Kainuma, M., Y. Matsuoka, and T. Morita, 1999: Analysis of post-Kyoto scenarios: The Asian-Pacific integrated model. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 207-220.
Kambara, T., 1992: The energy situation in China. China Quarterly, September, 608-636.
Katsoulacos, Y., and A. Xepapadeas, 1996: Environmental innovation, spillovers and optimal policy rules. In Environmental Policy and Market Structure, C. Carraro, Y. Katsoulacos, and A. Xepapadeas, (eds.), pp. 143-150.
Kelman, S., 1981: Cost-Benefit Analysis: An Ethical Critique. Regulation, 5(1).
Kemp, R., and L. Soete, 1990: Inside the “green box:” on the economics of technological change and the environment. New Explorations in the Economics of Technological Change, C. Freeman, and L. Soete, (eds.), Pinter, London.
Kennedy, P.W., 1994: Equilibrium pollution taxes in open economies with imperfect competition. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 27, 49-63.
Keohane, N.O., 1998: The political economy of environmental policy in Venezuela. Report to the World Bank (Photocopy).
Keohane, N.O., R.L. Revesz, and R.N. Stavins, 1999: The positive political economy of instrument choice in environmental policy. In Environmental and Public Economics: Essays in Honor of Wallace E. Oates, A. Panagariya, P.R. Portney, and R.M. Schwab, (eds.), Cheltenham, UK, pp. 89-125.
Kerr, S., 1998: Enforcing Compliance: The Allocation of Liability in International GHG Emissions Trading and the Clean Development Mechanism. Resources for the Future Climate Issue Brief, No 15, October 1998, p4.
Kerr, S., and D. Maré, 1997: Efficient Regulation Through Tradable Permit Markets: The United States Lead Phasedown. Working Paper 96-06, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, MD.
Kete, N., 1992: The U.S. acid rain control allowance trading system. In Climate Change: Designing a Tradable Permit System, T. Jones, J. Corfee-Morlot (eds.), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris, pp. 69-93.
Kneese, A.V., and C.L. Schulze, 1975: Pollution, Prices, and Public Policy. Brookings Institution, Washington, DC.
Kohn, R.E., 1992: When subsidies for pollution abatement increase total emissions. Southern Economic Journal, 59, 77-87.
Kolstad, C.D., 2000: Environmental Economics. Oxford University Press, New York, USA and Oxford, UK.
Kooiman, J., 1998: Topics in the economics of environmental regulation. Thesis, Tinbergen Institute Research Series, no.182, 141-159, Amsterdam.
Kopp, R., R. Morgenstern, and W. Pizer, 1999a: Something for everyone: A climate policy that both environmentalists and industry can live with. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.
Kopp, R., R. Morgenstern, W. Pizer, and M. Toman, 1999b: A proposal for credible early action in U.S. climate policy. Weathervane. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC. [online:].
Krause, F., 1996: The policy effectiveness of mandatory energy efficiency standards and voluntary agreements: an illustrative case study. In Proceedings of the U.S. Climate Change Analysis Workshop, June 6-7, Springfield, VA., US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Krause, F., E. Haites, R. Howarth, and F. J. Koomey, 1993: Cutting Carbon Emissions: Burden or Benefit? In Energy Policy in the Greenhouse, Vol. 2, Part 1. International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths, El Cerrito, CA.
Krause, F., J. Koomey, and D. Olivier, 1998: Low Carbon Comfort: The Cost and Potential of Energy Efficiency in EU Buildings, Energy Policy in the Greenhouse series, Vol. 2, Part 5. International Project for Sustainable Energy Paths, El Cerrito, CA.
Kurosawa, A., H. Yagita, Z. Weisheng, K. Tokimatsu, and Y. Yanagisawa, 1999: Analysis of carbon emission stabilization targets and adaptation by integrated assessment model. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 157-176.
Laffont, J.J., and J. Tirole, 1996: Pollution Permits and Environmental Innovation? Journal of Public Economics, 62, 127-140.
Lebo, B., and A. Szabo, 1996: Preparing minimum energy efficiency standards for European appliances. Proceedings of International Energy Conference on Use of Efficiency Standards in Energy Policy, Sophia-Antipolis, France, June, IEA/OECD.
Lee, H., and N. Darani, 1995: Electricity Restructuring and the Environment. CSIA Discussion Paper 95-13, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA.
Legro, S., I. Gritsevich, V. Berdin et al., 1999: Climate Change Policy and Programs in Russia: An Institutional Assessmen..Advanced International Study Unit, PNNL, Washington, DC.
Lile, R., M. Powell, and M. Toman, 1999: Implementing the Clean Development Mechanism: Lessons from U.S. private-sector participation. In Activities Implemented Jointly, Discussion Paper 99-08, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.
Lora, 1997: A Decade of Structural Reforms in Latin America: What Has Been Reformed and How to Measure It. Document presented at the Annual Meetings of the Inter-American Development Bank, Barcelona.
Lovins, A.B., 1996: Negawatts. Twelve transitions, eight improvements and one distraction. Energy Policy, 24(4), 331-344.
Magat, W.A., 1978: Pollution control and technological advance: A dynamic model of the firm. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 5, 1-25.
Magat, W.A., 1979: The effects of environmental regulation on innovation. Law and Contemporary Problems, 43, 3-25.
Maloney, M.T., and R.E. McCormick, 1982: A positive theory of environmental quality regulation. Journal of Law and Economics 25(4), 99-123.
Malueg, D.A., 1989: Emission credit trading and the incentive to adopt new pollution abatement technology, Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 16, 52-57.
Manne, A.S., and R. Richels, 1999: The Kyoto Protocol: A cost-effective strategy for meeting environmental objectives? The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 1-24.
Matsuo, N., 1998: How Is the CDM Compatible with Sustainable Development? The Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan.
Matsuo, N., 1999: Points and Proposals for the Emissions Trading Regime of Climate Change – For Designing Future System, September.
Markard, J., 1998: Green Pricing – Welchen Beitrag können freiwillige Zahlungen von Stromkunden zur Förderung regenerativer Energien leisten? Öko-Institute-Verlag, Freiburg.
McCubbins, M.D., and T. Sullivan, 1984: Constituency influences on legislative policy choice. Quality and Quantity, 18, 299-319.
McKibbin, W.J., and P.J. Wilcoxen, 1997a: Salvaging the Kyoto Climate Change Negotiations. Brookings Policy Brief no. 27, November 1997, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC.
McKibbin, W.J., and P.J. Wilcoxen, 1997b: A Better Way to Slow Global Climate Change. Brookings Policy Brief no. 17, June 1997, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC.
McKibbin, W.J., and P.J. Wilcoxen, 2000: The Next Step for Climate Change Policy. Brookings Background Paper #1 (January), Washington, DC.
McKibbin, W., M. Ross, R. Shackleton, and P. Wilcoxen, 1999: Emissions Trading, Capital Flows and the Kyoto Protocol. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 287-334.
McMahon, J., 1992: Quantifying the benefits and costs of US Appliance energy performance standards. Proceedings of International Energy Conference on Use of Efficiency Standards in Energy Policy, Sophia-Antipilis. France, 4-5 June 1992, IEA/OECD.
Mestelman, S., 1982: Production externalities and corrective subsidies: A general equilibrium analysis. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 9, 186-193.
Michaelowa, A., 2000: Klimapolitik in Großbritannien – Zufall oder gezieltes Handeln? Zeitschrift für Umweltpolitik und Umweltrecht.
Michaelowa, A., and M. Dutschke, 1998: Interest groups and efficient design of the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol. International Journal for Sustainable Development, 1(1), 24-42.
Michaelowa, A., and M. Dutschke, 1999a: Economic and Political Aspects of Baselines in the CDM Context. In Promoting development while limiting greenhouse gas emissions: trends and baselines. J. Goldemberg, and W. Reid (eds.), New York, NY, pp. 115-134.
Michaelowa, A., and M. Dutschke, 1999b: Creation and sharing of credits through the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.. In On the compatibility of flexible instruments. C. Jepma, and W. van der Gaast (eds.), Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 47-64..
Milliman, S.R., and R. Prince, 1989: Firm incentives to promote technological change in pollution control. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 17, 247-265.
Ministry of Economic Affairs, 1997: Long term agreements on energy efficiency progress in 1995, Den Haag, Netherlands.
Mitchell, C., 1995a: Renewables NFFO. Energy Policy, 23(12).
Mitchell, C., 1995b: Renewable Energy in the UK: Financing Options for the Future. Council for the Protection of Rural England.
Mitchell, C., 1997: Renewable Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation - The Diffusion of Technology by Regulation. TIP Workshop on Regulation and Innovative Activities, Vienna, February 1997.
Montero, J.P., 1999: Voluntary Compliance with Market-Based Environmental Policy: Evidence from the U.S. Acid Rain Program. Journal of Political Economy, 107(5), 998-1033.
Montero, J.P., 2000a: Optimal design of a phase-in emissions trading program. Journal of Public Economics, 75, 273-291.
Montero, J.P. 2000b: Prices versus quantities with incomplete enforcement. Journal of Public Economics,
Montero, J.P., 2000c: Market structure and environmental innovation. Working Paper, Catholic University of Chile (January 21), place.
Montero, J.P., L. Cifuentes, and F. Soto, 2000: Participación voluntaria en políticas internacionales de cambio climático: Implicancias para Chile. Estudios de Economía.
Morrisette, P., and A. Plantinga, 1991: The Global Warming Issue: Viewpoints of Different Countries. Resources, 103, 2-6.
Moscow City Government, 1999: Energy Conservation in Buildings, Requirement for Thermal Performance and Heat-Water-Power Supply, Moscow.
Mowery, D., and N. Rosenberg, 1989: Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Murase, S., 1995: Perspectives from International Economic Law on Transnational Environmental Issues. Recueil des Cours de L’Academie de Droit International de la Haye, 253, 283-431.
Murase, S., 1996: Unilateral Measures and the WTO Dispute Settlement. In Asian Dragon and Green Trade: Environment, Economics and International Law. S.S.C. Tay, and D.C. Esty (eds.), Times Academic Press, London, pp. 137-144.
Nadel, S., and Geller, H., 1996: Utility DSM. What have we learned? Where are we going? Energy Policy, 24(4), 289-302.
NEDO, 2000: A Report on Baseline Study Group. Secretariat. New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) and Mitsubishi Research Institute, Tokyo.
Nelson, R.A., T. Tietenberg, and M.R. Donihue, 1993: Differential Environmental Regulation: Effects On Electric Utility Capital Turnover and Emissions. Review of Economics and Statistics, 75 (2), 368-373.
Newell, R., and W. Pizer, 1998: Regulating Stock Externalities under Uncertainty. Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 99-10.
Newell, R.G., A.B. Jaffe, and R.N. Stavins, 1999: The induced innovation hypothesis and energy-saving technological change. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114(3), 941-975.
Nordhaus, W.D., and J.G. Boyer, 1999: Requiem for Kyoto: An Economic Analysis of the Kyoto Protocol. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 93-133.
Novem, 1998: Green Financing. The Netherlands Agency for Energy and Environment, January 28. [online:].
NRTEE, 1999: Canada’s Options for a Domestic GHG Emissions Trading Program. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, Ottawa, 1999.
Oates, W., and R.M. Schawb, 1988: Economic competition among jurisdictions: Efficiency enhancing or distortion inducing? Journal of Public Economics, 35, 333-354.
OECD, 1978: Environmental Policies in Japan. OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1996a: Implementation Strategies for Environmental Taxes. OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1996b: Integrating Environment and Economy: progress in the 1990s. OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1997a: Environmental Taxes and Green Tax Reform. OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1997b: Voluntary Agreements with Industry, Annex I Expert Group on the UNFCCC. Working Paper No.8, OCDE/GD997) 75, Paris [online:].
OECD, 1997c: Reforming Energy and Transport Subsidies: Energy and Environmental Implications. OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1997d: Economic/fiscal instruments: Competitiveness issues related to carbon/energy taxation, Annex I Expert Group on the UNFCCC. Working Paper No.14, OCDE/GD(97)190, OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1998a: Improving the Environment through Reducing Subsidies, Part I: Summary and Policy Conclusions, and Part II: Analysis and Overview of Studies. OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1998b: Voluntary Approaches for Environmental Policy in OECD Countries, 21 October, ENV/EPOC (98)6/REV1, OECD, Paris.
OECD, 1999: Implementing Domestic Tradable Permits for Environmental Protection, OECD, Paris.
OECD/IEA, 1997: Energy Efficiency Initiative. Country Profiles & Case Studies with 47 case studies of successful energy efficiency improvement project and policies implementation to learn from 480. OECD, Paris.
Owen, G., 1996: A Market in Efficiency: Providing Energy Savings through Competition. IPPR.
Oye, K.A., and J.H. Maxwell, 1995: Self-interest and environmental management. In Local Commons and Global Interdependence: Heterogeneity and Cooperation in Two Domains. R.O. Keohane, and E. Ostrom, (eds.), Sage Publications, London, pp. 191-221.
Palmer, K., and Burtraw, D., 1997: Electricity restructuring and regional air pollution. Resource and Energy Economics, 19, 139-174.
Panayotou, T., 1998: Instruments of Change: Motivating and Financing Sustainable Development. Earthscan Publications and United Nations Environment Program, London.
Parfomak, P., and L. Lave, 1997: How Many Kilowatts are in a Negawatt?. Verifying Ex Post Estimates of Utility Conservation Impacts at the Regional Level. The Energy Journal, 17(4).
Parkinson, S., K. Begg, P. Bailey, and T. Jackson. 1999: JI/CDM crediting under the Kyoto Protocol: does “interim period banking” help or hinder emissions reduction? Energy Policy, 27, 129-136.
Parkinson, S.D., P. Bailey, K. Begg, and T. Jackson, 2000: Accounting for Emissions Reduction and Costs - methodology and case study results, Chapter 7. Flexibility in Climate Policy: Making the Kyoto Mechanisms Work. T. Jackson, K. Begg, and S.D. Parkinson, (eds.), Earthscan, UK.
Parry, I.W.H., 1998: Pollution regulation and the efficiency gains from technological innovation. Journal of Regulatory Economics, 14, 229-254.
Parry, I.W.H., R. Williams, and L.H. Goulder, 1999: When Can Carbon Abatement Policies Increase Welfare? – The fundamental role of distorted factor markets. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, January.
Patterson, W., 1999: Transforming Electricity. The Royal Institute of International Affairs/Earthscan, UK.
Perkins, N. 1999: Introductory Note, World Trade Organization: US-Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products. International Legal Materials, 38, 118-120.
Pezzey, J., 1992: The Symmetry Between Controlling Pollution by Price and by Quantity. Canadian Journal of Economics, 25, 983-991.
Phylipsen, G., K. Blok, and E. Worrel, 1998: Handbook on International Comparisons of Energy Efficiency in the Manufacturing Industry. Utrecht, the Netherlands.
Pizer, W.A., 1997a: Optimal choice of policy instrument and stringency under uncertainty: the case of climate change. Resources for the future, report.
Pizer, W.A., 1997b: Prices vs quantities revisited: The case of climate change. Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 98-102.
Pohjola, J., 1999: Economy wide Effects of Reducing CO2 Emissions: A Comparison between Net and Gross Emissions. Journal of Forest Economics, 5(1), 139-168.
Polenske, K., and X. Lin, 1993: Conserving Energy to Reduce Carbon Dioxide Emissions in China. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, 4(2).
Poppe, D., 1999: Induced innovation and energy prices. Working Paper, University of Kansas, KS.
Radar, N., 1996: Renewables Portfolio Standard in California as Envisioned by the American Wind Energy Association, American Wind Energy Association (revised May 7, 1996). [online:].
Raekwon, Ch., 1997: Unexplored potential of the public-owned technology for promoting environmentally sound technology transfer. Korean Mission to the UN.
Rasmusen, E., and M. Zupan, 1991: Extending the economic theory of regulation to the form of policy. Public Choice, 72(2-3), 275-96.
Rauscher, M., 1991: Foreign trade and the environment. In Economics and the Environment: The International Dimension. H. Siebert,(ed.), Mohr, Tübingen, Germany,
Rauscher, M., 1994: On Ecological Dumping. Oxford Economic Papers, 46, 822-840.
Read, P., 1999: Comparative Static Analysis of Proportionate Abatement Obligations (PAO’s) – A Market Based Instrument for Responding to Global Warming. .NZ Econ Papers, 33(1), 137-147.
Read, P., 2000: An Information Perspective on Dynamic Efficiency in Environmental Policy. Information Economics and Policy, 12(1), 47-68.
Reilly, J., R. Prinn, J. Harmisch, J. Fitzmaurice, H. Jacoby, D. Kicklighter, J. Melillo, P. Stone, A. Sokolov, and C. Wang, 1999: Multiple Gas Assessment of the Kyoto Protocol. Nature, 401, 549-555.
Richards, K., 1998: Framing Environmental Policy Instrument Choice. Working Paper Series, Indiana University, USA.
Roberts, M. J., and M. Spence, 1976: Effluent charges and licenses under uncertainty. Journal of Public Economics, 5, 193-208.
Rose, A., B. Stevens, J. Edmonds, and M. Wise, 1998: International Equity and Differentiation in Global Warming Policy. Environmental and Resource Economics, 12, 25-51.
Rose, A., E. Bulte, and H. Folmer, 1999: Long-Run Implications for Developing Countries of Joint Implementation of GHG Mitigation. Environmental and Resource Economics, 14, 19-31.
Rosen, R., T. Woolf, B. Dougherty, B. Biewald, and S. Bernow, 1995: Promoting Environmental Quality in a Restructured Electric Industry. Prepared for the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners, Tellus Institute, Boston, MA.
Rosewicz, B., 1990: Americans Are Willing to Sacrifice to Reduce Pollution, They Say. Wall Street Journal, April 20, A1.
Rowlands, I., 1995: The politics of global atmospheric change. Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK.
Rucker, M., 2000: Linking International Green Power Markets: Lessons from the APX Green Tickets. Presented at Fifth National Green Power Marketing Conference, Denver, CO, August 8 2000.
Russell., C. and P. Powell, 1996: Choosing Environmental Policy Tools Theoretical and Practical Considerations. Inter American Development Bank, Washington DC.
Sagawa, N., 1998: Energy in Japan. The Institute of Energy Economics, March, Japan.
Sandel, M.J., 1997: It’s Immoral to Buy the Right to Pollute [Editorial]. New York Times, December 15, A29.
Schaeffer, G., M. Boots, J. Martens, and M. Voogt, 1999: Tradable Green Certificates, A New Market-Based Incentive Scheme for Renewable Energy: Introduction and Analysis. Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Petten.
Schmalensee, R., P.L. Joskow, A.D. Ellerman, J.P. Montero, and E.M. Bailey, 1998: An Interim Evaluation of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Trading. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(3), 53-68.
Schneider, K., 1998: Comment on M. Hoel: Emission taxes versus other Environmental Policies. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 100(1), 105-108.
Schumpeter, J., 1942: Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper, New York, NY..
Segerson, K., and Miceli, T., 1997: Voluntary Approaches to Environmental Protection: The Role of Legislative Threats, Nota di lavoro 21.97, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Milan.
Shelby, M., R. Shackleton, M. Shealy, and A. Cristofaro, 1997: The Climate Change Implications of Eliminating U.S. Energy (and Related) Subsidies. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.
Shepsle, K.A., and B.R. Weingast, 1984: Political solutions to market problems. American Political Science Review, 78, 417-34.
Sinton, J.E., and M.D. Levine, 1994: Changing Energy Intensity in Chinese Industry. Energy Policy, March, 239-255.
Smil, V., 1990: China’s Energy. Report prepared for the U.S. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC.
Smith, V.L., and A.W. Williams, 1982: The Effects of Rent Asymmetries in Experimental Auction Markets. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, 3(1), 99-116.
Speck, S., 1999: A database of environmental taxes and charges. European Union. (online:
Stavins, R.N., 1996: Correlated uncertainty and policy instrument choice. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 30, 218-232.
Stavins, R.N., 1998a: What Can We Learn from the Grand Policy Experiment? Lessons from SO2 Allowance Trading. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(3), 69-88.
Stavins, R.N., 1998b: Market Based Environmental Policies. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Harvard MA.
Stavins, R.N., 2000: Experience with Market-Based Environmental Policy Instruments. The Handbook of Environmental Economics. K. Göran Mäler, J. Vincent, (eds.), Elsevier, place.
Stigler, G.J., 1971: The theory of economic regulation. Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 2, 3-21.
Stoneman, P., 1983: The Economic Analysis of Technological Change. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Storey, M., G. Boyd, and J. Down, 1999: Voluntary Agreements with Industry. In Voluntary approaches in Environmental Policy. C. Corraro, and F. Leveque (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 187-207.
Svendsen, G.T., 1999: U.S. interest groups prefer emission trading: a new perspective. Public Choice, 101(1-2), 109-128.
Swezey, B., and L. Bird, 2000: Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 5th editon. Golden, CO.
TERI, 1997: Capacity building for technology transfer in the context of climate change. TERI (Draft.), New Delhi, India.
TERI, 1998: Clean Development Mechanism: Issues and Modalities. TERI, New Delhi, India.
The People’s Republic of China, 1997: National Report on Sustainable Development.
Thorne, S., and E.L. La Rovere, 1999: Criteria and indicators for the appraisal of Clean Development Mechanism Projects. Paper presented at COP5, Helio International.
Tietenberg, T., 1998: Ethical influences on the evolution of the US tradable permit approach to air pollution control. Ecological Economics. 24, 241-257.
Tietenberg, T., 2000: Environmental and Natural Resource Economics, 5th ed. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Tietenberg, T., and D. Wheeler, 2000: Empowering the Community: Information Strategies for Pollution Control. In Frontiers of Environmental Economics, H. Folmer, (ed.).
Tol, R.S.J., 1999: Kyoto, Efficiency, and Cost-Effectiveness: Application of FUND, The Energy Journal, Special Issue. The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 131-156.
Toman, M.A., R.D. Morgenstern, and J. Anderson, 1999: The economics of when flexibility in the design of GHG abatement policies. Resources for the Future Discussion Paper 99-38 (revised).
Torvanger, A., and Skodvin, T., 1999: Implementing the Kyoto Protocol - The role of environmental agreements. CICERO (Center for International Climate and Environmental Research).
Trexler, M., 1998: The Role of Forestry as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC.
Tulpulé, V., S. Brown, J. Lim, C. Polidano, H. Pant, and B.S. Fisher, 1999: The Kyoto Protocol: An Economic Analysis Using GTEM. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol. A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, 257-286.
Ulph, A., 1993: Environmental Policy and International Trade When Governments and Producers Act Strategically. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management.
Ulph, A., 1994: Environmental policy, plant location and government protection. In Trade, Innovation, Environment. C. Carraro, C. (ed.), Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Ulph, A., 1996: Strategic environmental policy and international trade - the role of market conduct. In Environmental Policy and Market Structure. C. Carraro, Y. Katsoulacos, and A. Xepapadeas, (eds.), pp. 99-127.
Ulph, D., 1994: Strategic innovation and strategic environmental policy. In Trade, Innovation, Environment. C. Carraro (ed.), Kluwer, Dordrecht.
UNCTAD, 1998: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading: Defining the Principles, Modalities, Rules and Guidelines for Verification, Reporting and Accountability. United Nations, p.15., August.
UNEP, 1983; 1991: Multilateral Treaties in the Field of the Environment, Vol. 1 (1983), Vol. 2 (1991).
UNFCCC, 1992: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Climate Change Secretariat, Geneva, June.
UNFCCC, 1997: The Kyoto Protocol to the Convention on Climate Change. Climate Change Secretariat, Bonn, December.
UNFCCC, 1999: Procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol. Submissions from Parties, Note by the secretariat, United Nations (FCCC/SB/1999/MISC.4 and addenda).
UNFCCC, 2000: Procedures and mechanisms relating to compliance under the Kyoto Protocol. Proposals by the Co-Chairman of the Joint Working Group on Compliance, 15 September.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, 1998: Non-Paper on Principles, Modalities, Rules and Guidelines for an International Emissions Trading Regime on behalf of the European Community and its Member States and Czech Republic, Slovakia, Croatia, Latvia, Switzerland, Slovenia, Poland and Bulgaria, June 8.
US Congressional Record, 1992: The Comprehensive National Energy Policy Act, Vol. 138, No. 142-Part V, Washington, DC.
US DOE, 1999: Supporting Analysis of the Clinton Administration’s Comprehensive Electricity Act (CECA). US DOE, May.
US FERC, 1996: Environmental Impact Statement, Promoting Wholesale Competition through Open Access Non-Discriminatory Transmission Services by Public Utilities and Recovery of Stranded Cost by Public Utilities and Transmitting Utilities, US FERC, April.
Van Beers, C. and Van den Bergh, 1997: An empirical multi-country analysis of the impact of environmental regulations on foreign trade flows. Kyklos 50, 29-46.
Van Dril, A.W.N., 2000: Testing Dutch LTA’s: eco-efficiency can be improved. ENER.
Vollebergh, H.R.J., J.L. de Vries and P.R. Koutstaal, 1997: Hybrid carbon incentive mechanisms and political acceptability. Environmental and Resource Economics 9, 43-63.
Ward, H. and D. Black, 2000: Trade, Investment and the Environment, The Royal Institute of International Affairs, London.
Watson, W.D. and R.G. Ridker, 1984: Losses from effluent taxes and quotas under uncertainty. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 11, 310-316.
WEC, 1998: Benefits and Deficiencies of Energy Sector Liberalization. World Energy Council.
Weinberg, C.J., 1995: The Electricity Utility: Restructuring and Technology - A Path to Light or Dark. In Profits in the Public Interest. National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners. Washington DC.
Weitzman, M., 1974: Prices versus quantities. Review of Economic Studies 41, 477-491.
Wellisch, D., 1995: Locational choices of firms and decentralized environmental policy with various instruments. Journal of Urban Economics 37(3), 290-310.
Werksman, J., 1998: Compliance and the Kyoto Protocol: Building a Backbone into a “Flexible” Regime. 9 Yearbook International Environmental Law, 48.
Werksman, J., 1999: GHG Emissions Trading and the WTO. Foundation for International Law and Development, London.
Weyant, J.P., and J. Hill, 1999: Introduction and Overview. The Energy Journal, Special Issue, The Costs of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation, May, vii-xiv.
Wiener, J., 1998: Global Environmental Regulation: Instrument Choice in Legal Context. Yale Law Journal, 677, 108.
Wirl, F., C. Huber, and I.O. Walker, 1998: Joint Implementation: Strategic Reactions and Possible Remedies. Environmental and Resource Economics, 12(2), 203-224.
Wiser, G., 1999: Compliance Systems Under Multilateral Agreements. Centre for International Environmental Law, Washington, DC., October.
Wiser, G., 2000: Restoring the Balance, Using Remedial Measures to Avoid and Cure Non-Compliance under the Kyoto Protocol, March.
Wiser, R.H., 1997: Renewable energy finance and project ownership: the impact of alternative development structures on the cost of wind power. Energy Policy, 25(1), 15-27.
Wiser, R. 1999. Comparing State Portfolio Standards and System-Benefits Charges Under Restructuring. LBNL, April.
Wiser, R., and S. Pickle, 1997: Green Marketing, Renewables and Free Riders: Increasing Customer Demand for Public Good. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, LBNL-40532, UC-1321, September.
Wiser, R., J. Fang, and A. Houston, 1999: Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment. The Topical Issues Brief Series sponsored by DOE’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, place.
Wiser, R., K. Porter, and M. Bolinger, 2000: Comparing State Portfolio Standards and System-Benefits Charges Under Restructuring. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Berkeley, CA.
Woerdman, E., 2000: The EU Proposal on Supplementarity: a Questionnaire. University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Woerdman, E., and W.P. van der Gaast, 1999: A Review of the Cost-Effectiveness of Activities Implemented Jointly: Projecting JI and CDM Credit Prices. ECOF Working Paper (First Draft), University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Wolsink, M., 1996: Dutch Wind Power Policy: Stagnating Implementation of Renewables. Energy Policy, 24(12).
World Trade Organization, 1999: United States- Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products (Shrimp-Turtle decision). Report of the Appellate Body (WT/DS58/AB/R), 12 October.
Wortmann, K., M. Klitzke, S. Lörx, R. Menges, 1996: Grüner Tarif. Klimaschutz durch freiwillige Kundenbeiträge zum Stromtarif. Akzeptanz, Umsetzung, Verwendung. Energiestiftung Schleswig-Holstein Studie 2, Kiel, Germany.
Yamaguchi, M. 2000. Global Environmental Issues and Corporate Activity. Iwanami Publishing Company. Tokyo (in Japanese).
Yamin, F., 1998: The Clean Development Mechanism and Adaptation, Working Paper, Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development, London, p. 38.
Yamin, F, J. Burniaux, and A. Nentjes, 2000: Kyoto Mechanisms: Key Issues for Policy-Makers for COP-6. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, 1(2).
Zerbe, R.O., 1970: Theoretical efficiency in pollution control. Western Economic Journal, 8, 364-376.
Zhang, Z., 1999a: Estimating the Size of the Potential Market for All Three Flexibility Mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol.
Zhang, Z., 1999b: Towards a Successful International GHG Emissions Trading System. On the Compatibility of Flexible Instruments. C.J. Jepma, W. van der Gaast (eds.), Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 93-102.
Zhang, Z., 2000: Should the rules of allocating permits be harmonized? Ecological Economics.

Other reports in this collection