Selection of plants (e.g., legume-based systems) and animal species and better stock management are likely to be the most positive management options (Chapman et al., 1996; Gitay and Noble, 1998). Rotational cropping and decreased use of marginal lands might be necessary in rangeland management. This might mean more intensive land management in some areas, leading to more reliable food supplies and perhaps reduction in methane production from livestock (decrease in methane production would be caused by improved forage quality; Allen-Diaz, 1996). Potential stocking rates could be determined via satellite imagery (Oesterheld et al., 1998). However, the decision on stocking rates might still be made on a social basis, especially given the values associated with livestock in many pastoral rangeland communities (Turner, 1993).
As human population in rangelands increases and land use changes, some traditional practices are becoming less appropriate. Some of the options for sustainable agriculture could include efficient small-scale or garden irrigation, more effective rainfed farming, changing cropping patterns, intercropping, or using crops with lower water demand (Lal, 1989; Batchelor et al., 1994; Dixon et al., 1994a; Dabbagh and Abdelrahman, 1998). Conservation-effective tillage is an option that could help to achieve improved productivity (Benites and Ofori, 1993). Agroforesry, using potential fuelwood species, also is an obvious option to alleviate land degradation as well as to meet some social needs. Management (e.g., appropriate coppicing in Uganda) or other practices (e.g., collecting only dead or fallen wood; Benjaminsen, 1993) are considered essential for maintenance of fuelwood species. Where woody weeds are increasing, they could be used for domestic fuel supply; otherwise, management options (e.g., use of fire along with regulation of grazingArcher, 1995; Brown and Archer, 1999) might have to be implemented to control woody weeds.
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