Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
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Figure 8.20: (a) Radiative forcing (Wm-2) since 1979 due to changes in stratospheric aerosols, ozone, greenhouse gases and solar irradiance.
(b) to (d) Observed global annual mean surface, tropospheric and stratospheric temperature changes and GISS GCM simulations as the successive radiative forcings are cumulatively added one by one. An additional constant 0.65 Wm-2 forcing was included in all their simulations, representing the estimated disequilibrium forcing for 1979. The base period defining the zero mean observed temperature was 1979 to 1990 for the surface and the troposphere and 1984 to 1990 for the stratosphere. Taken from Hansen et al. (1997).

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