Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
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Figure 2.28: Reconstructions since 1700 of proxy-based ENSO indices. Shown are the Northern Hemisphere cold-season (Oct-Mar) mean NINO 3 index of Mann et al. (2000a) and the Northern Hemisphere winter SOI index of Stahle et al. (1998). The SOI series is scaled to have the same standard deviation as the NINO 3 index, and is reversed in sign to be positively correlated with the NINO 3 series. An instrumental NINO 3 index from 1871 to 2000 is shown for comparison (Rayner et al., 2000; see also Figure 2.29), with two standard error limits (grey shaded) of the proxy NINO 3 reconstruction.

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