Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
Other reports in this collection

Appendix III - Contributors to the IPCC WGI Third Assessment Report

Technical Summary

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
D.L. Albritton NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
L.G. Meira Filho Agência Espacial Brasileira, Brazil
 
Lead Authors
U. Cubasch Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
X. Dai IPCC WGI Technical Support Unit, UK/National Climate Center, China
Y. Ding IPCC WGI Co-Chairman, National Climate Center, China
D.J. Griggs IPCC WGI Technical Support Unit, UK
B. Hewitson University of Capetown, South Africa
J.T. Houghton IPCC WGI Co-Chairman, UK
I. Isaksen University of Oslo, Norway
T. Karl NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
M. McFarland Dupont Fluoroproducts, USA
V.P. Meleshko Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia
J.F.B. Mitchell Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
M. Noguer IPCC WGI Technical Support Unit, UK
B.S. Nyenzi Zimbabwe Drought Monitoring Centre, Tanzania
M. Oppenheimer Environmental Defense, USA
J.E. Penner University of Michigan, USA
S. Pollonais Environment Management Authority, Trinidad and Tobago
T. Stocker University of Bern, Switzerland
K.E. Trenberth National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
 
Contributing Authors
M.R. Allen Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
A.P.M. Baede Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, Netherlands
J.A. Church CSIRO Division of Marine Research, Australia
D.H. Ehhalt Institut für Chemie der KFA Jülich GmbH, Germany
C.K. Folland Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
F. Giorgi Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy
J.M. Gregory Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J.M. Haywood Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J.I. House Max-Plank Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
M. Hulme University of East Anglia, UK
V.J. Jaramillo Instituto de Ecologia, UNAM, Mexico
A. Jayaraman Physical Research Laboratory, India
C.A. Johnson IPCC WGI Technical Support Unit, UK
S. Joussaume Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
D.J. Karoly Monash University, Australia
H. Kheshgi Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering Company, USA
C. Le Quéré Max Plank Institute for Biogeochemistry, France
K. Maskell IPCC WGI Technical Support Unit, UK
L.J. Mata Universitaet Bonn, Germany
B.J. McAvaney Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Australia
L.O. Mearns National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
G.A. Meehl National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
B. Moore III University of New Hampshire, USA
R.K. Mugara Zambia Meteorological Department, Zambia
M. Prather University of California, USA
C. Prentice Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
V. Ramaswamy NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
S.C.B. Raper University of East Anglia, UK
M.J. Salinger National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
R. Scholes Division of Water, Environment and Forest Technology, South Africa
S. Solomon NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
R. Stouffer NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
M.-X. Wang Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
R.T. Watson Chairman IPCC, The World Bank, USA
K.-S. Yap Malaysian Meteorological Service, Malaysia
 
Review Editors
F. Joos University of Bern, Switzerland
A. Ramirez-Rojas Universidad Central Venezuela, Venezuela
J.M.R. Stone Environment Canada, Canada
J. Zillman Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
 

Chapter 1. The Climate System: an Overview

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
A.P.M. Baede Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, Netherlands
 
Lead Authors
E. Ahlonsou National Meteorological Service, Benin
Y. Ding IPCC WG1 Co-Chairman, National Climate Center, China
D. Schimel Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany/NCAR, USA
 
Review Editors
B. Bolin Retired, Sweden
S. Pollonais Environment Management Authority, Trinidad and Tobago
 

Chapter 2. Observed Climate Variability and Change

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
C.K. Folland Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
T.R. Karl NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
 
Lead Authors
J.R. Christy University of Alabama, USA
R.A. Clarke Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Canada
G.V. Gruza Institute for Global Climate and Ecology, Russia
J. Jouzel Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment, France
M.E. Mann University of Virginia, USA
J. Oerlemans University of Utrecht, Netherlands
M.J. Salinger National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
S.-W. Wang Peking University, China
 
Contributing Authors
J. Bates NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, USA
M. Crowe NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
P. Frich Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
P. Groissman NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
J. Hurrell National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
P. Jones University of East Anglia, UK
D. Parker Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
T. Peterson NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
D. Robinson Rutgers University, USA
J. Walsh University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
M. Abbott Oregon State University, USA
L. Alexander Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
H. Alexanderson Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden
R. Allan CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
R. Alley Pennsylvania State University, USA
P. Ambenjie Department of Meteorology, Kenya
P. Arkin Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA
L. Bajuk Mathsoft Data Analysis Products Division, USA
R. Balling Arizona State University, USA
M.Y. Bardin Institute for Global Climate and Ecology, Russia
R. Bradley University of Massachusetts, USA
R. Brázdil Masaryk University, Czech Republic
K.R. Briffa University of East Anglia, UK
H. Brooks NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, USA
R.D. Brown Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada
S. Brown Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
M. Brunet-India University Rovira I Virgili, Spain
M. Cane Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA
D. Changnon Northern Illinois University, USA
S. Changnon University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
J. Cole University of Colorado, USA
D. Collins Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
E. Cook Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA
A. Dai National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
A. Douglas Creighton University, USA
B. Douglas University of Maryland, USA
J.C. Duplessy Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
D. Easterling NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
P. Englehart USA
R.E. Eskridge NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
D. Etheridge CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
D. Fisher Geological Survey of Canada, Canada
D. Gaffen NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, USA
K. Gallo National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, USA
E. Genikhovich Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia
D. Gong Peking University, China
G. Gutman National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, USA
W. Haeberli University of Zurich, Switzerland
J. Haigh Imperial College, UK
J. Hansen Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
D. Hardy University of Massachusetts, USA
S. Harrison Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
R. Heino Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
K. Hennessy CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
W. Hogg Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada
S. Huang University of Michigan, USA
K. Hughen Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, USA
M.K. Hughes University of Arizona, USA
M. Hulme University of East Angelia, UK
H. Iskenderian Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., USA
O.M. Johannessen Nasen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Norway
D. Kaiser Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA
D. Karoly Monash University, Australia
D. Kley Institut fuer Chemie und Dynamik der Geosphaere, Germany
R. Knight NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
K.R. Kumar Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, India
K. Kunkel Illinois State Water Survey, USA
M. Lal Indian Institute of Technology, India
C. Landsea NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, USA
J. Lawrimore NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
J. Lean Naval Research Laboratory, USA
C. Leovy University of Washington, USA
H. Lins US Geological Survey, USA
R. Livezey NOAA National Weather Service, USA
K.M. Lugina St Petersburg University, Russia
I. Macadam Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J.A. Majorowicz Northern Geothermal, Canada
B. Manighetti National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
J. Marengo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil
E. Mekis Environment Canada, Canada
M.W. Miles Nasen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Norway
A. Moberg Stockholm University, Sweden
I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russia
V. Morgan University of Tasmania, Australia
L. Mysak McGill University, Canada
M. New Oxford University, UK
J. Norris NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
L. Ogallo University of Nairobi, Kenya
J. Overpeck NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, USA
T. Owen NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
D. Paillard Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
T. Palmer European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting, UK
C. Parkinson NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
C.R. Pfister Unitobler, Switzerland
N. Plummer Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
H. Pollack University of Michigan, USA
C. Prentice Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
R. Quayle NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
E.Ya. Rankova Institute for Global Climate and Ecology, Russia
N. Rayner Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
V.N. Razuvaev Chief Climatology Department, Russia
G. Ren National Climate Center, China
J. Renwick National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
R. Reynolds NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA
D. Rind Goddard Institute of Space Studies, USA
A. Robock Rutgers University, USA
R. Rosen Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., USA
S. Rösner Department Climate and Environment, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Germany
R. Ross NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, USA
D. Rothrock Applied Physics Laboratory, USA
J.M. Russell Hampton University, USA
M. Serreze University of Colorado, USA
W.R. Skinner Environment Canada, Canada
J. Slack US Geological Survey, USA
D.M. Smith Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
D. Stahle University of Arkansas, USA
M. Stendel Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark
A. Sterin RIHMI-WDCB, Russia
T. Stocker University of Bern, Switzerland
B. Sun University of Massachusetts, USA
V. Swail Environment Canada, Canada
V. Thapliyal India Meteorological Department, India
L. Thompson Ohio State University, USA
W.J. Thompson University of Washington, USA
A. Timmermann Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, Netherlands
R. Toumi Imperial College, UK
K. Trenberth National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
H. Tuomenvirta Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland
T. van Ommen University of Tasmania, Australia
D. Vaughan British Antarctic Survey, UK
K.Y. Vinnikov University of Maryland, USA
U. von Grafenstein Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
H. von Storch GKSS Research Center, Germany
M. Vuille University of Massachusetts, USA
P. Wadhams Scott Polar Research Institute, UK
J.M. Wallace University of Washington, USA
S. Warren University of Washington, USA
W. White Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
P. Xie NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction, USA
P. Zhai National Climate Center, China
 
Review Editors
R. Hallgren American Meteorological Society, USA
B. Nyenzi Zimbabwe Drought Monitoring Centre, Tanzania
 

Chapter 3. The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
I.C. Prentice Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
 
Lead Authors
G.D. Farquhar Australian National University, Australia
M.J.R. Fasham Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
M.L. Goulden University of California, USA
M. Heimann Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
V.J. Jaramillo Instituto de Ecologia, UNAM, Mexico
H.S. Kheshgi Exxon Mobil Research and Engineering Company, USA
C. Le Quéré Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
R.J. Scholes Division of Water, Environment and Forest Technology, South Africa
D.W.R. Wallace Universitat Kiel, Germany
 
Contributing Authors
D. Archer University of Chicago, USA
M.R. Ashmore University of Bradford, UK
O. Aumont Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
D. Baker Princeton University, USA
M. Battle Bowdoin College, USA
M. Bender Princeton University, USA
L.P. Bopp Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
P. Bousquet Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
K. Caldeira Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
P. Ciais CEA, LMCE/DSM, France
P.M. Cox Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
W. Cramer Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
F. Dentener Environment Institute, Italy
I.G. Enting CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
C.B. Field Carnegie Institute of Washington, USA
P. Friedlingstein Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
E.A. Holland Max-Planck Institute for Biochemistry, Germany
R.A. Houghton Woods Hole Research Center, USA
J.I. House Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
A. Ishida Institute for Global Change Research, Japan
A.K. Jain University of Illinois, USA
I.A. Janssens Universiteit Antwerpen, Belgium
F. Joos University of Bern, Switzerland
T. Kaminski Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
C.D. Keeling University of California at San Diego, USA
R.F. Keeling University of California at San Diego, USA
D.W. Kicklighter Marine Biological Laboratory, USA
K.E. Kohfeld Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
W. Knorr Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
R. Law Monash University, Australia
T. Lenton Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, UK
K. Lindsay National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
E. Maier-Reimer Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
A.C. Manning University of California at San Diego, USA
R.J. Matear CSIRO Division of Marine Research, Australia
A.D. McGuire University of Alaska at Fairbanks, USA
J.M. Melillo Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
R. Meyer University of Bern, Switzerland
M. Mund Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
J.C. Orr Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement, France
S. Piper Scripps Institution of Oceanography, USA
K. Plattner University of Bern, Switzerland
P.J. Rayner CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
S. Sitch Institut für Klimafolgenforschung, Germany
R. Slater Princeton University Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Program, USA
S. Taguchi National Institute for Research & Environment, Japan
P.P. Tans NOAA Climate Monitoring & Diagnostics Laboratory, USA
H.Q. Tian Marine Biological Laboratory, USA
M.F. Weirig Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
T. Whorf University of California at San Diego, USA
A. Yool Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
 
Review Editors
L. Pitelka University of Maryland, USA
A. Ramirez Rojas Universidad Central Venezuela, Venezuela
 

Chapter 4. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
D. Ehhalt Institut für Chemie der KFA Jülich GmbH, Germany
M. Prather University of California, USA
 
Lead Authors
F. Dentener Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Netherlands
R. Derwent Met Office, UK
E. Dlugokencky NOAA Climate Monitoring & Diagnostics Laboratory, USA
E. Holland Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
I. Isaksen University of Oslo, Norway
J. Katima University of Dar-Es-Salaam, Tanzania
V. Kirchhoff Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil
P. Matson Stanford University, USA
P. Midgley M&D Consulting, Germany
M. Wang Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China
 
Contributing Authors
T. Berntsen Centre for International Climate and Environmental Research, Norway
I. Bey Harvard University, USA/France
G. Brasseur Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
L. Buja National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
W.J. Collins Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J. Daniel NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
W.B. DeMore Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
N. Derek CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
R. Dickerson University of Maryland, USA
D. Etheridge CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
J. Feichter Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
P. Fraser CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
R. Friedl Jet Propulsion Laboratory, USA
J. Fuglestvedt University of Oslo, Norway
M. Gauss University of Oslo, Norway
L. Grenfell NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
A. Grübler International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria
N. Harris European Ozone Research Coordinating Unit, UK
D. Hauglustaine Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, Service Aeronomie, France
L. Horowitz National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
C. Jackman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
D. Jacob Harvard University, USA
L. Jaeglé Harvard University, USA
A. Jain University of Illinois, USA
M. Kanakidou Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Greece
S. Karlsdottir University of Oslo, Norway
M. Ko Atmospheric & Environmental Research Inc., USA
M. Kurylo NASA Headquarters, USA
M. Lawrence Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany
J.A. Logan Harvard University, USA
M. Manning National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research, New Zealand
D. Mauzerall Princeton University, USA
J. McConnell York University, Canada
L. Mickley Harvard University, USA
S. Montzka NOAA Climate Monitoring & Diagnostics Laboratory, USA
J.F. Muller Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Belgium
J. Olivier National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands
K. Pickering University of Maryland, USA
G. Pitari Università Degli Studi dell' Aquila, Italy
G.J. Roelofs University of Utrecht, Netherlands
H. Rogers University of Cambridge, UK
B. Rognerud University of Oslo, Norway
S. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA
S. Solomon NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
J. Staehelin Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland
P. Steele CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
D. S. Stevenson Met Office, UK
J. Sundet University of Oslo, Norway
A. Thompson NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
M. van Weele Konjnklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, Netherlands
R. von Kuhlmann Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany
Y. Wang Georgia Institute of Technology, USA
D. Weisenstein Atmospheric & Envrionmental Research Inc., USA
T. Wigley National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
O. Wild Frontier Research System for Global Change, Japan
D. Wuebbles University of Illinois, USA
R. Yantosca Harvard University, USA
 
Review Editors
F. Joos University of Bern, Switzerland
M. McFarland Dupont Fluoroproducts, USA
 

Chapter 5. Aerosols, their Direct and Indirect Effects

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
J.E. Penner University of Michigan, USA
 
Lead Authors
M. Andreae Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany
H. Annegarn University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa
L. Barrie Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada
J. Feichter Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
D. Hegg University of Washington, USA
A. Jayaraman Physical Research Laboratory, India
R. Leaitch Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada
D. Murphy NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
J. Nganga University of Nairobi, Kenya
G. Pitari Università Degli Studi dell' Aquil, Italy
 
Contributing Authors
A. Ackerman NASA Ames Research Center, USA
P. Adams Caltech, USA
P. Austin University of British Columbia, Canada
R. Boers CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
O. Boucher Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, France
M. Chin Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
C. Chuang Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
W. Collins Met Office, UK
W. Cooke NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
P. DeMott Colorado State University, USA
Y. Feng University of Michigan, USA
H. Fischer Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Germany
I. Fung University of California, USA
S. Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA
P. Ginoux NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
S.-L. Gong Atmospheric Environment Service, Canada
A. Guenther National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
M. Herzog University of Michigan, USA
A. Higurashi National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
Y. Kaufman NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
A. Kettle Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany
J. Kiehl National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
D. Koch National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
G. Lammel Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
C. Land Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
U. Lohmann Dalhousie University, Canada
S. Madronich National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
E. Mancini Università Degli Studi dell' Aquila, Italy
M. Mishchenko NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
T. Nakajima University of Tokyo, Japan
P. Quinn National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration, USA
P. Rasch National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
D.L. Roberts Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
D. Savoie University of Miami, USA
S. Schwartz Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA
J. Seinfeld California Institute of Technology, USA
B. Soden Princeton University, USA
D. Tanré Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, France
K. Taylor Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
I. Tegen Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
X. Tie National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
G. Vali University of Wyoming, USA
R. Van Dingenen Enviroment Institute of European Commission, Italy
M. van Weele Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, The Netherlands
Y. Zhang University of Michigan, USA
 
Review Editors
B. Nyenzi Zimbabwe Drought Monitoring Centre, Tanzania
J. Prospero University of Miami, USA
 

Chapter 6. Radiative Forcing of Climate Change

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
V. Ramaswamy NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
 
Lead Authors
O. Boucher Max-Planck Institute for Chemistry, Germany/Laboratoire d'Optique Atmospherique, France
J. Haigh Imperial College, UK
D. Hauglustaine Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
J. Haywood Meteorological Research Flight, Met Office, UK
G. Myhre University of Oslo, Norway
T. Nakajima University of Tokyo, Japan
G.Y. Shi Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China
S. Solomon NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
 
Contributing Authors
R. Betts Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
R. Charlson Stockholm University, Sweden
C. Chuang Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
J.S. Daniel NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, USA
A. Del Genio NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
J. Feichter Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
J. Fuglestvedt University of Oslo, Norway
P.M. Forster Monash University, Australia
S.J. Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA
A. Jones Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J.T. Kiehl National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
D. Koch Yale University, USA
C. Land Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
J. Lean Naval Research Laboratory, USA
U. Lohmann Dalhousie University, Canada
K. Minschwaner New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, USA
J.E. Penner University of Michigan, USA
D.L. Roberts Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
H. Rodhe University of Stockholm, Sweden
G.J. Roelofs University of Utrecht, Netherlands
L.D. Rotstayn CSIRO, Australia
T.L. Schneider Institute for World Forestry and Ecology, Germany
U. Schumann Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Germany
S.E. Schwartz Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA
M.D. Schwartzkopf NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
K.P. Shine University of Reading, UK
S. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA
D.S. Stevenson Met Office, UK
F. Stordal Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Norway
I. Tegen Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
R. van Dorland Knoinklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, The Netherlands
Y. Zhang University of Michigan, USA
 
Review Editors
J. Srinivasan Indian Institute of Science, India
F. Joos University of Bern, Switzerland
 

Chapter 7. Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
T.F. Stocker University of Bern, Switzerland
 
Lead Authors
G.K.C. Clarke University of British Columbia, Canada
H. Le Treut Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
R.S. Lindzen Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
V.P. Meleshko Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia
R.K. Mugara Zambia Meteorological Department, Zambia
T.N. Palmer European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting, UK
R.T. Pierrehumbert University of Chicago, USA
P.J. Sellers NASA Johnson Space Center, USA
K.E. Trenberth National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
J. Willebrand Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität Kiel, Germany
 
Contributing Authors
R.B. Alley Pennsylvania State University, USA
O.E. Anisimov State Hydrological Institute, Russia
C. Appenzeller University of Bern, Switzerland
R.G. Barry University of Colorado, USA
J.J. Bates NOAA Environmental Research Laboratories, USA
R. Bindschadler NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
G.B. Bonan National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
C.W. Böning Universtat Kiel, Germany
S. Bony Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique du Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, France
H. Bryden Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
M.A. Cane Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univeristy, USA
J.A. Curry Aerospace Engineering, USA
T. Delworth NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
A.S. Denning Colorado State University, USA
R.E. Dickinson University of Arizona, USA
K. Echelmeyer University of Alaska, USA
K. Emanuel Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA
G. Flato Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
I. Fung University of California, USA
M. Geller New York State University, USA
P.R. Gent National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
S.M. Griffies NOAA Princeton University, USA
I. Held NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
A. Henderson-Sellers Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Australia
A.A.M. Holtslag Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Netherlands
F. Hourdin Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France
J.W. Hurrell National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
V.M. Kattsov Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia
P.D. Killworth Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
Y. Kushnir Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia Univeristy, USA
W.G. Large National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
M. Latif Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
P. Lemke Alfred-Wegener Institute for Polar & Marine Research, Germany
M.E. Mann University of Virginia, USA
G. Meehl National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
U. Mikolajewicz Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
W. O'Hirok Institute for Computational Earth System Science, USA
C.L. Parkinson NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
A. Payne University of Southampton, UK
A. Pitman Macquarie University, Australia
J. Polcher Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France
I. Polyakov Princeton University, USA
V. Ramaswamy NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
P.J. Rasch National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
E.P. Salathe University of Washington, USA
C. Schär Institut fur Klimaforschung ETH, Switzerland
R.W. Schmitt Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA
T.G. Shepherd University of Toronto, Canada
B.J. Soden Princeton University, USA
R.W. Spencer Marshall Space Flight Center, USA
P. Taylor Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
A. Timmermann Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, Netherlands
K.Y. Vinnikov University of Maryland, USA
M. Visbeck Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, USA
S.E. Wijffels CSIRO Division of Marine Research, Australia
M. Wild Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland
 
Review Editors
S. Manabe Institute for Global Change, Japan
P. Mason Met Office, UK
 

Chapter 8. Model Evaluation

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
B.J. McAvaney Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Australia
 
Lead Authors
C. Covey Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
S. Joussaume Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment, France
V. Kattsov Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, Russia
A. Kitoh Meteorological Research Institute, Japan
W. Ogana University of Nairobi, Kenya
A.J. Pitman Macquarie University, Australia
A.J. Weaver University of Victoria, Canada
R.A. Wood Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
Z.-C. Zhao National Climate Center, China
 
Contributing Authors
K. AchutaRao Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
A. Arking NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
A. Barnston NOAA Climate Prediction Center, USA
R. Betts Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
C. Bitz Quaternary Research, USA
G. Boer Canadian Center for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
P. Braconnot Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment, France
A. Broccoli NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
F. Bryan Programe in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, USA
M. Claussen Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
R. Colman Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Australia
P. Delecluse Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Dynamique et Climatologie, France
A. Del Genio NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
K. Dixon NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
P. Duffy Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
L. Dümenil Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
M. England University of New South Wales, Australia
T. Fichefet Universite Catholique de Louvain, Belgium
G. Flato Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
J.C. Fyfe Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
N. Gedney Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
P. Gent National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
C. Genthon Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environment, France
J. Gregory Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
E. Guilyardi Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Dynamique et Climatologie, France
S. Harrison Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
N. Hasegawa Japan Environment Agency, Japan
G. Holland Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Australia
M. Holland National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
Y. Jia Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
P.D. Jones University of East Angelia, UK
M. Kageyama Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire Sciences du Climat et de l'Environment, France
D. Keith Harvard University, USA
K. Kodera Meteorological Research Institute, Japan
J. Kutzbach University of Wisconsin at Madison, USA
S. Lambert University of Victoria, Canada
S. Legutke Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum GmbH, Germany
G. Madec Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Laboratoire d'Oceanographie Dynamique et Climatologie, France
S. Maeda Meteorological Research Institute, Japan
M.E. Mann University of Virginia, USA
G. Meehl National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russia
T. Motoi Frontier Research System for Global Change, Japan
T. Phillips Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
J. Polcher Center National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, France
G.L. Potter Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
V. Pope Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
C. Prentice Max-Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Germany
G. Roff Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre, Australia
P. Sellers NASA Johnson Space Center, USA
F. Semazzi Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
D.J. Stensrud NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory, USA
T. Stockdale European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting, UK
R. Stouffer NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
K.E. Taylor Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
R. Tol Vrije Universitiet, Netherlands
K. Trenberth National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
J. Walsh University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
M. Wild Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland
D. Williamson National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
S.-P. Xie University of Hawaii at Manoa, USA
X.-H. Zhang Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
F. Zwiers Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada
 
Review Editors
Y. Qian Nanjing University, China
J. Stone Environment Canada, Canada
 

Chapter 9. Projections of Future Climate Change

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
U. Cubasch Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
G.A. Meehl National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
 
Lead Authors
G.J. Boer University of Victoria, Canada
R.J. Stouffer NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
M. Dix CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
A. Noda Meteorological Research Institute, Japan
C.A. Senior Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
S. Raper University of East Anglia, UK
K.S. Yap Malaysian Meteorological Service, Malaysia
 
Contributing Authors
A. Abe-Ouchi University of Tokyo, Japan
S. Brinkop Institute für Physik der Atmosphäre, Germany
M. Claussen Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
M. Collins Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J. Evans Pennsylvania State University, USA
I. Fischer-Bruns Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
G. Flato Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
J.C. Fyfe Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
A. Ganopolski Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
J.M. Gregory Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
Z.-Z. Hu Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, USA
F. Joos University of Bern, Switzerland
T. Knutson NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
C. Landsea NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, USA
L. Mearns National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
C. Milly US Geological Survey, USA
J.F.B. Mitchell Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
T. Nozawa National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
H. Paeth Universität Bonn, Germany
J. Räisänen Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden
R. Sausen Institute für Physik der Atmosphäre, Germany
S. Smith Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA
T. Stocker University of Bern, Switzerland
A. Timmermann Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, Netherlands
U. Ulbrich Institut fuer Geophysik und Meteorolgie, Germany
A. Weaver University of Victoria, Canada
J. Wegner Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Germany
P. Whetton CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
T. Wigley National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
M. Winton NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
F. Zwiers Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada
 
Review Editors
J. Stone Environment Canada, Canada
J.-W. Kim Yonsei University, South Korea
 

Chapter 10. Regional Climate Information - Evaluation and Projections

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
F. Giorgi Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Italy
B. Hewitson University of Capetown, South Africa
 
Lead Authors
J. Christensen Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark
M. Hulme University of East Anglia, UK
H. Von Storch GKSS, Germany
P. Whetton CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
R. Jones Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
L. Mearns National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
C. Fu Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China
 
Contributing Authors
R. Arritt Iowa State University, USA
B. Bates CSIRO Land and Water, Australia
R. Benestad Det Norske Meteorologiske Institutt, Norway
G. Boer Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
A. Buishand Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut, Netherlands
M. Castro Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain
D. Chen Göteborg University, Sweden
W. Cramer Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
R. Crane The Pennsylvania State University, USA
J.F. Crossley University of East Anglia, UK
M. Dehn University of Bonn, Germany
K. Dethloff Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
J. Dippner Institute for Baltic Research, Germany
S. Emori National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan
R. Francisco Weather Bureau, Philippines
J. Fyfe Canadian Centre for climate modelling and analysis, Canada
F.W. Gerstengarbe Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
W. Gutowski Iowa State University, USA
D. Gyalistras University of Berne, Switzerland
I. Hanssen-Bauer The Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Norway
M. Hantel University of Vienna, Austria
D.C. Hassell Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
D. Heimann Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Germany
C. Jack University of Cape Town, South Africa
J. Jacobeit Universitaet Wuerzburg, Germany
H. Kato Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan
R. Katz National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
F. Kauker Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
T. Knutson NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
M. Lal Indian Institute of Technology, India
C. Landsea NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic & Meteorological Laboratory, USA
R. Laprise University of Quebec at Montreal, Canada
L.R. Leung Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA
A.H. Lynch University of Colorado, USA
W. May Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark
J.L. McGregor CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
N.L. Miller Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA
J. Murphy Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
J. Ribalaygua Fundación para la Investigación del Clima, Spain
A. Rinke Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Germany
M. Rummukainen Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden
F. Semazzi Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
K. Walsh CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
P. Werner Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
M. Widmann GKSS Research Centre, Germany
R. Wilby University of Derby, UK
M. Wild Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland
Y. Xue University of California at Los Angeles, USA
 
Review Editors
M. Mietus Institute of Meteorology & Water Management, Poland
J. Zillman Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
 

Chapter 11. Changes in Sea Level

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
J.A. Church CSIRO Division of Marine Research, Australia
J.M. Gregory Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
 
Lead Authors
P. Huybrechts Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium
M. Kuhn Innsbruck University, Austria
K. Lambeck Australian National University, Australia
M.T. Nhuan Hanoi University of Sciences, Vietnam
D. Qin Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
P.L. Woodworth Bidston Observatory, UK
 
Contributing Authors
O.A. Anisimov State Hydrological Institute, Russia
F.O. Bryan Programe in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, USA
A. Cazenave Groupe de Recherche de Geodesie Spatiale CNES, France
K.W. Dixon NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
B.B. Fitzharris University of Otago, New Zealand
G.M. Flato Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
A. Ganopolski Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany
V. Gornitz Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
J.A. Lowe Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
A. Noda Japan Meteorological Agency, Japan
J.M. Oberhuber German Climate Computing Centre, Germany
S.P. O'Farrell CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
A. Ohmura Geographisches Institute ETH, Switzerland
M. Oppenheimer Environmental Defense, USA
W.R. Peltier University of Toronto, Canada
S.C.B. Raper University of East Anglia, UK
C. Ritz Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l'Environment, France
G.L. Russell NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, USA
E. Schlosser Innsbruck University, Austria
C.K. Shum Ohio State University, USA
T.F. Stocker University of Bern, Switzerland
R.J. Stouffer NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
R.S.W. van de Wal Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research, Netherlands
R. Voss Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Germany
E.C. Wiebe University of Victoria, Canada
M. Wild Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Switzerland
D.J. Wingham University College London, UK
H.J. Zwally NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, USA
 
Review Editors
B.C. Douglas University of Maryland, USA
A. Ramirez Universidad Central Venezuela, Venezuela
 

Chapter 12. Detection of Climate Change and Attribution of Causes

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
J.F.B. Mitchell Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
D.J. Karoly Monash University, Australia
 
Lead Authors
G.C. Hegerl Texas A&M University, USA/Germany
F.W. Zwiers University of Victoria, Canada
M.R. Allen Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK
J. Marengo Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Brazil
 
Contributing Authors
V. Barros Ciudad Universitaria, Argentina
M. Berliner Ohio State University, USA
G. Boer Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling & Analysis, Canada
T. Crowley Texas A&M University, USA
C. Folland Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
M. Free NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, USA
N. Gillett University of Oxford, UK
P. Groissman NOAA National Climatic Data Center, USA
J. Haigh Imperial College, UK
K. Hasselmann Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
P. Jones University of East Anglia, UK
M. Kandlikar Carnegie-Mellon University, USA
V. Kharin Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, Canada
H. Khesghi Exxon Mobil Research & Engineering Company, USA
T. Knutson NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
M. MacCracken Office of the US Global Change Research Program, USA
M. Mann University of Virginia, USA
G. North Texas A&M University, USA
J. Risbey Carnegie-Mellon University, USA
A. Robock Rutgers University, USA
B. Santer Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
R. Schnur Max-Planck Institute for Meteorology, Germany
C. Schönwiese J.W. Goethe University, Germany
D. Sexton Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
P. Stott Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
S. Tett Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, UK
K. Vinnikov University of Maryland, USA
T. Wigley National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
 
Review Editors
F. Semazzi Southampton Oceanography Centre, UK
J. Zillman Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
 

Chapter 13. Climate Scenario Development

 
Co-ordinating Lead Authors
L.O. Mearns National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
M. Hulme University of East Anglia, UK
 
Lead Authors
T.R. Carter Finnish Environment Institute, Finland
R. Leemans Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, Netherlands
M. Lal Indian Institute of Technology, India
P. Whetton CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
 
Contributing Authors
L. Hay US Geological Survey, USA
R.N. Jones CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, Australia
R. Katz National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
T. Kittel National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
J. Smith Stratus Consulting Inc., USA
R. Wilby University of Derby, UK
 
Review Editors
L.J. Mata Universidad Central Venezuela, Venezuela
J. Zillman Bureau of Meteorology, Australia
 

Chapter 14. Advancing our Understanding

 
Co-ordinating Lead Author
B. Moore III University of New Hampshire, USA
 
Lead Authors
W.L. Gates Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
L.J. Mata Universidad Central Venezuela, Venezuela
A. Underdal University of Oslo, Norway
 
Contributing Author
R.J. Stouffer NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, USA
 
Review Editors
B. Bolin Retired, Sweden
A. Ramirez Rojas Universidad Central Venezuela, Venezuela


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