Barthelet, P., L. Terray and S. Valcke, 1998a: Transient CO2
experimets using the ARPEGE/OPAICE non-flux corrected coupled model. Geophys.
Res. Lett., 25, 2277-2280.
Barthelet, P., S. Bony, P. Braconnot, A. Braun, D. Cariolle, E. Cohen-Solal, J.-L. Dufresne, P. Delecluse, M. Déqué, L.Fairhead, M.-A., Filiberti, M. Forichon, J.-Y. Grandpeix, E. Guilyardi, M.-N. Houssais, M. Imbard, H. LeTreut, C. Lévy, Z. X. Li, G. Madec, P. Marquet, O. Marti, S. Planton, L. Terray, O. Thual and S. Valcke, 1998b: Simulations couplées globales de changements climatiques associés à une augmentation de la teneur atmosphérique en CO2. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Sciences de la terre et des planètes, 326, 677-684 (in French with English summary).
Bates, G.T. and G.A. Meehl, 1986: Effect of CO2 concentration on the frequency of blocking in a general circulation model coupled to a simple mixed layer ocean model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 687-701.
Beersma, J.J., K.M. Rider, G.J. Komen, E. Kaas and V.V. Kharin, 1997: An analysis of extratropical storms in the North Atlantic region as simulated in a control and 2xCO2 time-slice experiment with a high-resolution atmospheric model. Tellus, 49A, 347-361.
Bengtsson, L., M. Botzet and M. Esch, 1996. Will greenhouse gas-induced warming over the next 50 years lead to a higher frequency and greater intensity of hurricanes? Tellus, 48A, 175-196.
Bhaskharan B. and Mitchell J.F.B., 1998: Simulated changes in the intensity and variability of the southeast Asian monsoon in the twenty first century resulting from anthropogenic emissions scenarios. Int. J. Climatol., 18, 1455-1462.
Boer, G.J., K. Arpe, M. Blackburn, M. Deque, W.L. Gates, T.L. Hart, H. le Treut, H. E. Roeckner, D.A. Sheinin, I. Simmonds, R.N.B. Smith, T. Tokioka, R.T. Wetherald and D. Williamson, 1992: Some results from an intercomparison of climates simulated by 14 atmospheric general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 12,771-12,786.
Boer, G.J., G. Flato, M. C. Reader and D. Ramsden, 2000a: A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: experimental design and comparison with the instrumental record for the 20th century. Clim. Dyn. 16, 405-425.
Boer, G.J., G. Flato, and D. Ramsden, 2000b: A transient climate change simulation with greenhouse gas and aerosol forcing: projected climate for the 21st century. Clim. Dyn. 16, 427-450.
Boville, B.A., J.T. Kiehl, P.J. Rasch and F.O. Bryan, 2001: Improvements to the NCAR-CSM-1 for transient climate simulations. J. Climate, 14, 164-179.
Brankovic, C. and T. Palmer, 2000: Seasonal skill and predictability of ECMWF PROVOST ensemble, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 126, 2035-2069.
Brinkop, S., 2001: Change of convective activity and extreme events in a transient climate change simulation, DLR-Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, Report No. 142, [Available from DLR-Oberpfaffenhofen, Institut fuer Physik der Atmosphaere, D-82234 Wessling, Germany].
Bryan, F. 1987: Parameter sensitivity of primitive equation ocean general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17. 970-985.
Buishand, T.A. and J.J. Beersma, 1996: Statistical tests for comparison of daily variability in observed and simulated climates. J. Climate, 9, 2538-2550.
Cai, W. and P.H. Whetton, 2000: Evidence for a time-varying pattern of greenhouse warming in the Pacific Ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2577-2580.
Cane M.A, A.C. Clement, A. Kaplan, Y. Kushnir, D. Pozdnyakov, R. Seager, S.E. Zebiak and R. Murtugudde, 1997: Twentieth century sea surface temperature trends. Science, 275, 957-960.
Carnell, R.E., C.A. Senior and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1996: An assessment of measures of storminess: simulated changes in Northern Hemisphere winter due to increasing CO2. Clim. Dyn., 12, 467-476.
Carnell, R.E. and C.A. Senior, 1998. Changes in mid-latitude variability due to increasing greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Clim. Dyn., 14, 369-383.
Carnell, R.E. and C.A. Senior, 2000: Mechanisms of changes in storm tracks with increased greenhouse gases. Hadley Centre Technical Note 18. Available from Met Office, London Road Bracknell, RG12 2SZ, UK.
Christoph, M., U. Ulbrich and P. Speth, 1997: Midwinter suppression of Northern Hemisphere storm track activity in the real atmosphere and in GCM experiments. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 1589-1599.
Collins, M., 2000a: The El-Niño Southern Oscillation in the second Hadley Centre coupled model and its response to greenhouse warming. J. Climate, 13, 1299-1312.
Collins, M., 2000b: Understanding uncertainties in the response of ENSO to greenhouse warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3509-3512.
Colman, R.A. and B.J. McAvaney, 1995: Sensitivity of the climate response of an atmospheric general circulation model to changes in convective parameterisation and horizontal resolution. J. Geophys. Res. 100, 3155-3172.
Colman, R.A., 2001: On the vertical extent of GCM feedbacks. Clim. Dyn., in press.
Corti, S., F. Molteni, T.N. Palmer, 1999: Signature of recent climate change in frequencies of natural atmospheric circulation regimes. Nature, 398, 799-802.
Cox, P.M., R.A. Betts, C.D. Jones, S.A. Spall, and I.J. Totterdell, 2000: Acceleration of global warming by carbon cycle feedbacks in a 3D coupled model. Nature, 408, 184-187.
Cubasch, U., K. Hasselmann, H. Höck, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, B. D. Santer and R. Sausen, 1992: Time-dependent greenhouse warming - computations with a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Clim. Dyn., 8, 55-69.
Cubasch, U., B. D. Santer, A. Hellbach, G. Hegerl, H. Höck, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, A. Stössel and R. Voss, 1994: Monte Carlo climate change forecasts with a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Clim. Dyn., 10, 1-19.
Cubasch, U., G. C. Hegerl and J. Waszkewitz, 1996: Prediction, detection and regional assessment of anthropogenic climate change. Geophysica, 32, 77-96.
Cubasch, U., M. Allen, P. Barthelet, M. Beniston, C.Bertrand, S. Brinkop, J.-Y.Caneill, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Fairhead, M.-A. Filiberti, J. Gregory, G. Hegerl, G. Hoffmann, T. Johns, G. Jones, C. Laurent, R. McDonald, J. Mitchell, D. Parker, J. Oberhuber, C. Poncin, R. Sausen, U. Schlese, P. Stott, L. Terray, S. Tett, H. leTreut, U. Ulbrich, S. Valcke, R. Voss, M. Wild, J.-P. van Ypersele, 1999: Summary Report of the Project Simulation, Diagnosis and Detection of the Anthropogenic Climate Change (SIDDACLICH), EU-Commission, Brussels, EUR 19310, ISBN 92-828-8864-9.
Cubasch, U. and I. Fischer-Bruns, 2000: An intercomparison of scenario simulations performed with different AOGCMs, in: RegClim, General Technical Report No. 4, DNMI (Norwegian Meteorological Institute), eds. T. Iversen and B.A.K. Hoiskar.
Dai, A., T.M.L. Wigley, B. A. Boville, J.T. Kiehl, and L.E. Buja, 2001: Climates of the 20th and 21st centuries simulated by the NCAR climate system model. J. Climate, 14, 485-519.
Delworth, T.L., J.D. Mahlman, and T.R. Knutson: 2000: Changes in heat index associated with CO2-induced global warming. Clim. Change, 43, 369-386.
Derome, J., G. Brunet, A. Plante, N. Gagnon, G.J. Boer, F. Zwiers, S.Lambert, J. Sheng and H. Ritchie, 2001: Seasonal prediction based on two dynamical models, Atmos.-Ocean, in press.
Dessens, J., 1995: Severe convective weather in the context of a night-time global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 1241-1244.
Dixon, K.W. and J.R. Lanzante, 1999: Global mean surface air temperature and North Atlantic overturning in a suite of coupled GCM climate change experiments. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1885-1888.
Dixon, K. W., T. L. Delworth, M. J. Spelman and R. J. Stouffer, 1999: The influence of transient surface fluxes on North Atlantic overturning in a coupled GCM climate change experiment, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2749-2752.
Doblas-Reyes, J., M. Deque and J.-P. Piedelievre, 2000: Multi-model spread and probabilistic seasonal forecasts in PROVOST, Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 126, 2069 - 2089.
Durman, C.F., J.M. Gregory, D.C. Hassell, R.G. Jones and J.M. Murphy, 2001: A comparison of extreme European daily precipitation simulated by a global and a regional model for present and future climates. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., in press.
Dutton, J.F., C.J. Poulsen, and J.L. Evans, 2000: The effect of global climate change on the regions of tropical convection in CSM1. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3049-3052.
Easterling, D.R., G. A. Meehl, C. Parmesan, S.A. Changnon, T.R. Karl and L.O. Mearns, 2000: Climate extremes: observations, modelling and impacts. Science, 289, 2068-2074.
Emori, S., T. Nozawa, A. Abe-Ouchi, A. Numaguti and M. Kimoto, 1999: Coupled ocean-atmosphere model experiments of future climate change with an explicit representation of sulphate aerosol scattering. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 77, 1299-1307.
Enting, I.G., T.M.L. Wigley and M. Heimann, 1994: Future emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide: key ocean/atmosphere/land analyses, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research Technical Paper No. 31.
Evans, J.L. and T. Kempisty, 1998: Tropical cyclone signatures in the climate. AMS Symposium on Tropical Cyclone Intensity Change, 11-16 January, 1998, Phoenix AZ.
Fanning, A.F. and A.J. Weaver, 1996: An atmospheric energy-moisture balance model: climatology, interpentadal climate change, and coupling to an ocean general circulation model. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 15,111-15,128.
Fanning, A.F. and A.J. Weaver, 1997: On the role of flux adjustments in an idealised coupled climate model. Clim. Dyn., 13, 691-701.
Flato, G.M. and G.J. Boer, 2001: Warming asymmetry in climate change simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 195-198.
Friedlingstein, P., L. Bopp, P. Ciais, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Fairhead, H. LeTreut, P. Monfray, and J. Orr, 2001: Positive feedback of the carbon cycle on future climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.
Fyfe, J.C., 1999: On climate simulations of African easterly waves. J. Climate, 12, 1747-1769.
Fyfe, J.C., G.J. Boer, and G.M. Flato, 1999: The Arctic and Antarctic oscillations and their projected changes under global warming, Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1601-1604.
Ganopolski, A., V. Petoukhov, S. Rahmstorf, V. Brovkin, M. Claussen, A. Eliseev and C. Kubatzki, 2001: CLIMBER-2: A climate system model of intermediate complexity. Part II: validation and sensitivity tests. Clim. Dyn., in press.
Gates, W.L., J.S. Boyle, C.Covey, C.G. Dease, C.M. Doutriaux, R.S. Drach, M. Fiorino, P.J. Gleckler, J.J. Hnilo, S.M. Marlais, T.J. Phillips, G.L. Potter, B.D. Santer, K.R. Sperber, K.E.Taylor and D.N. Williams, 1999: An overview of the results of the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP I). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 80, 29-55.
Gent, P.R., 2001: Will the North Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation weaken during the 21st century? Geophys. Res. Lett., in press.
Gordon, H.B. and S.P. O´Farrell, 1997: Transient climate change in the CSIRO coupled model with dynamic sea ice. Mon. Wea. Rev., 125, 875-907.
Graham, R.J., A.D.L. Evans, K.R. Mylen, M.S.J. Harrison and K.B. Robertson, 1999: An assessment of seasonal predictability using atmospheric general circulation models. Forecasting Research Scientific Paper No. 54. UK Met Office, Bracknell Berkshire RG12 2SY, UK, 22 pp
Gray, W. M., 1979: Hurricanes: their formation, structure and likely role in the tropical circulation, In: Meteorology Over the Tropical Oceans, D.B. Shaw (ed), Royal Meteorological Society, J. Glaisher House, Grenville Place, Bracknell, Berks, pp. 155-218.
Gregory, J. M. and J. F. B. Mitchell, 1995: Simulation of daily variability of surface temperature and precipitation over Europe in the current and 2xCO2 climate using the UKMO high-resolution climate model. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc., 121, 1451-1476.
Gregory, J.M. and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1997: The climate response to CO2 of the Hadley Centre coupled AOGCM with and without flux adjustment. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1943-1946.
Gregory, J.M., J.F.B. Mitchell and A.J. Brady, 1997: Summer drought in Northern midlatitudes in a time-dependent CO2 climate experiment. J. Climate, 10, 662-686.
Gregory, J.M. and J.A. Lowe, 2000: Predictions of global and regional sea-level rise using AOGCMs with and without flux adjustment. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3069-3072.
Hansen, J., A. Lacis, D. Rind, G. Russell, P. Stone, I. Fung, R. Ruedy and J.Lerner, 1984: Climate sensitivity: analysis of feedback mechanisms, Met. Monograph, 29, 130-163.
Hansen, J., G. Russell, A. Lacis, I. Fung, D. Rind and P. Stone, 1985: Climate response times: dependence on climate sensitivity and ocean mixing. Science, 299, 857-859.
Harvey, D., J. Gregory, M. Hoffert, A. Jain, M. Lal, R. Leemans, S. Raper T. Wigley and J. de Wolde, 1997: An introduction to simple climate models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. [J.T. Houghton, L. G. Meira Filho, D. J. Griggs and K. Maskell (eds.)] IPCC Technical Paper II.
Haywood, J.M., R.J. Stouffer, R.T. Wetherald, S. Manabe and V. Ramaswamy, 1997: Transient response of a coupled model to estimated changes in greenhouse gas and sulphate concentrations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 1335-1338.
Henderson-Sellers, A., H. Zhang, G. Berz, K. Emanuel, W. Gray, C. Landsea, G. Holland, J. Lighthill, S.-L. Shieh, P. Webster and K. McGuffie, 1998. Tropical cyclones and global climate change: a post IPCC assessment. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 79, 19-38.
Hennessy, K.J., J.M. Gregory and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1997: Changes in daily precipitation under enhanced greenhouse conditions: comparison of UKHI and CSIRO9 GCM. Clim. Dyn., 13, 667-680.
Hirst, A.C. 1999: The Southern Ocean response to global warming in the CSIRO coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Environmental Modelling and Software, 14, 227-241.
Holland, G.J., 1997: Maximum potential intensity of tropical cyclones. J. Atmos. Sci., 54, 2519-2541.
Hu, Z.-Z., M. Latif, E. Roeckner and L. Bengtsson, 2000a: Intensified Asian summer monsoon and its variability in a coupled model forced by increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2681-2684.
Hu, Z.-Z., L. Bengtsson and K. Arpe, 2000b: Impact of the global warming on the Asian winter monsoon in a coupled GCM. J. Geophys. Res., 105, 4607-4624.
Hu, Z.-Z., L. Bengtsson, E. Roeckner, M. Christoph, A. Bacher and J. Oberhuber, 2001: Impact of global warming on the interannual and interdecadal climate modes in a coupled GCM. Clim. Dyn., in press.
Hurrell J.W., 1995: Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676-679.
Hurrell J.W., 1996: Influence of variations in extratropical wintertime teleconnections on Northern Hemisphere temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1665-1668.
IPCC, 1990: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Contribution of Working Group I to the First Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 365 pp.
IPCC, 1992: Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific Assessment. Report prepared for IPCC by Working Group I. [Houghton, J.T., B.A.Callander and S.K.Varney (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 200 pp.
IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 572 pp.
Japan Meteorological Agency, 1999: Information of Global Warming, Vol. 3 -Climate change due to increase of CO2 and sulphate aerosol projected with a coupled atmosphere ocean model (in Japanese). 70pp. (CD-ROM data are available from JMA.)
Jones, P.D., 1994: Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: a reanalysis and an update to 1993. J. Climate, 7, 1794-1802.
Johns, T.C., J.M. Gregory, W.J. Ingram, C.E. Johnson, A. Jones, J.A. Lowe, J.F.B. Mitchell, D.L. Roberts, D.M.H. Sexton, D.S. Stevenson, S.F.B. Tett and M.J. Woodge, 2001: Anthropogenic climate change for 1860 to 2100 simulated with the HadCM3 model under updated emissions scenarios. Hadley Centre Technical Note No. 22, available from The Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, The Met Office, London Road, Bracknell, RG12 2SY, UK.
Joos, F., M. Bruno, R. Fink, T.F.Stocker, U. Siegenthaler, C. Le Quéré and J.L. Sarmiento, 1996: An efficient and accurate representation of complex oceanic and biospheric models of anthropogenic carbon uptake. Tellus, 48B, 397-417.
Kattenberg, A., F. Giorgi , H. Grassl, G.A. Meehl, J.F.B. Mitchell, R.J. Stouffer, T. Tokioka, A.J. Weaver and T.M.L.Wigley, 1996. In: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 572 pp.
Keen, A.B. and J.M. Murphy, 1997: Influence of natural variability and the cold start problem on the simulated transient response to increasing CO2. Clim. Dyn., 13, 847-864.
Kharin, V.V. and F.W. Zwiers, 2000: Changes in the extremes in an ensemble of transient climate simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM. J. Climate, 13, 3760-3788.
Kitoh, A., H. Koide, K. Kodera, S. Yukimoto and A. Noda, 1996: Interannual variability in the stratospheric-tropospheric circulation in an ocean-atmosphere coupled GCM. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 543-546.
Kitoh, A., S. Yukimoto, A. Noda and T. Motoi, 1997. Simulated changes in the Asian summer monsoon at times of increased atmospheric CO2. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 75, 1019-1031.
Knippertz, P., U. Ulbrich and P. Speth, 2000: Changing cyclones and surface wind speeds over the North Atlantic and Europe in a transient GHG experiment. Clim. Res., 15, 109-122.
Knutson T.R. and S. Manabe, 1994: Impact of increased CO2 on simulated ENSO-like phenomena. Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 2295-2298.
Knutson, T.R., and S. Manabe, 1995: Time-mean response over the tropical Pacific to increased CO2 in a coupled ocean-atmosphere model. J. Climate, 8, 2181-2199.
Knutson, T.R., S. Manabe and D. Gu, 1997: Simulated ENSO in a global coupled ocean-atmosphere model: multidecadal amplitude modulation and CO2-sensitivity. J. Climate, 10, 138-161.
Knutson, T.R. and S. Manabe, 1998: Model assessment of decadal variability and trends in the tropical Pacific ocean. J. Climate, 11, 2273-2296.
Knutson, T.R., R.E. Tuleya and Y. Kurihara, 1998: Simulated increase of hurricane intensities in a CO2-warmed climate. Science, 279, 1018-1020.
Knutson, T.R., T.L. Delworth, K.W. Dixon and R.J. Stouffer, 1999: Model assessment of regional surface temperature trends (1949-97). J. Geophys. Res., 104, 30,981-30,996.
Kodera, K., M. Chiba, H. Koide, A. Kitoh and Y. Nikaidou, 1996. Interannual variability of the winter stratosphere and troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 74, 365-382.
Kothavala, Z., 1997: Extreme precipitation events and the applicability of global climate models to study floods and droughts. Math. and Comp. in Simulation, 43, 261-268.
Kothavala, Z., 1999: The duration and severity of drought over eastern Australia simulated by a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM with a transient increase in CO2. Environmental Modelling Software, 14, 243-252.
Krishnamurti, T.N., R. Correa-Torres, M. Latif and G. Daughenbaugh, 1998. The impact of current and possibly future SST anomalies on the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes. Tellus, 50A, 186-210.
Krishnamurti, T.N., C.M. Kishtawal, T.E. LaRow, D.R. Bachiochi, Z. Zhang, C.E. Williford, S. Gadgil and S. Surendran, 1999: Improved weather and seasonal climate forecasts from multimodel superensemble. Science, 285, 1548-1550.
Kushner, P.J., I.M. Held and T.L. Delworth, 2001: Southern-hemisphere atmospheric circulation response to global warming. J. Climate, in press.
Lal, M., U. Cubasch, R. Voss and J. Waszkewitz, 1995: The effect of transient increase of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols on monsoon climate. Curr. Sci., 69, 752-763.
Lal, M., G.A. Meehl and J.M. Arblaster, 2000: Simulation of Indian summer monsoon rainfall and its intraseasonal variability. Regional Environmental Change, in press.
Lambert, S.J. and G.J. Boer, 2001: CMIP1 evaluation and intercomparison of coupled climate models. Clim. Dyn., 17, 83-106.
Latif, M., E. Roeckner, U. Mikolajewicz and R. Voss, 2000: Tropical stabilisation of the thermohaline circulation in a greenhouse warming simulation. J.Climate, 13, 1809-1813.
LeTreut, H. and B.J. McAvaney, 2000: A model intercomparison of equilibrium climate change in response to CO2 doubling. Note du Pole de Modelisation de l'IPSL, Number 18, Institut Pierre Simon LaPlace, Paris, France.
Lunkeit, F., M. Ponater, R. Sausen, M. Sogalla, U. Ulbrich and M. Windelband, 1996: Cyclonic activity in a warmer climate. Contrib. Atmos. Phys., 69, 393-407.
Lunkeit, F., S.E. Bauer and K. Fraedrich, 1998: Storm tracks in a warmer climate: sensitivity studies with a simplified global circulation model. Clim. Dyn., 14, 813-826.
Lupo, A.R., R.J. Oglesby and I.I. Mokhov, 1997: Climatological features of blocking anticyclones: a study of Northern Hemisphere CCM1 model blocking events in present-day and double CO2 concentrations. Clim. Dyn., 13, 181-195.
Manabe, S., R.J. Stouffer, M.J. Spelman and K. Bryan, 1991: Transient responses of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2. Part I: annual mean response. J. Climate, 4, 785-818.
Manabe, S. and R.J. Stouffer, 1994: Multiple-century response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to an increase of the atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Climate, 7, 5-23.
Matyasovszky,I., 1998: Non-parametric estimation of climate trends. Quarterly Journal of the Hungarian Meteorolgical Service, 102, 149-158.
Meehl, G.A., G.W. Branstator and W.M. Washington, 1993: Tropical Pacific interannual variability and CO2 climate change. J. Climate, 6, 42-63.
Meehl, G. A., M. Wheeler and W.M. Washington, 1994: Low-frequency variability and CO2 transient climate change. Part 3. Intermonthly and interannual variability. Clim. Dyn. 10, 277-303.
Meehl, G.A., W.M. Washington, D.J. Erickson III, B.P. Briegleb and P.J. Jaumann, 1996: Climate change from increased CO2 and direct and indirect effects of sulphate aerosols. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 3755-3758.
Meehl, G.A. and W.M. Washington, 1996: El Nino-like climate change in a model with increased atmospheric CO2-concentrations. Nature, 382, 56-60.
Meehl, G.A., G.J. Boer, C. Covey, M. Latif and R.J. Stouffer, 2000a: The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 81, 313-318.
Meehl, G.A., W. Collins, B. Boville, J.T. Kiehl, T.M.L. Wigley and J.M. Arblaster, 2000b: Response of the NCAR Climate System Model to increased CO2 and the role of physical processes. J. Climate, 13, 1879-1898.
Meehl, G.A., W.M. Washington, J.M. Arblaster, T.W. Bettge and W.G. Strand Jr., 2000c: Anthropogenic forcing and decadal climate variability in sensitivity experiments of 20th and 21st century climate. J. Climate, 13, 3728-3744.
Meehl, G.A., F. Zwiers, J. Evans, T. Knutson, L. Mearns and P. Whetton, 2000d: Trends in extreme weather and climate events: issues related to modelling extremes in projections of future climate change. Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 81, 427-436.
Meehl, G.A., P. Gent, J.M. Arblaster, B. Otto-Bliesner, E. Brady and A. Craig, 2001: Factors that affect amplitude of El Nino in global coupled climate models. Clim. Dyn., 17, 515-526.
Mikolajewicz, U. and R. Voss, 2000: The role of the individual air-sea flux components in CO2-induced changes of the ocean's circulation and climate. Clim. Dyn. 16, 627-642.
Mitchell, J.F.B., S. Manabe, V. Meleshko and T. Tokioka, 1990. Equilibrium climate change - and its implications for the future. In Climate Change. The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Contribution of Working Group 1 to the first assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, [Houghton, J. L, G. J. Jenkins and J. J. Ephraums (eds)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 137-164.
Mitchell, J.F.B., T.C. Johns, J.M. Gregory and S.F.B. Tett, 1995: Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Nature, 376, 501-504.
Mitchell, J.F.B. and T.C. Johns, 1997: On the modification of global warming by sulphate aerosols. J. Climate, 10, 245-267.
Mitchell J.F.B., T.C. Johns and C.A. Senior, 1998: Transient response to increasing greenhouse gases using models with and without flux adjustment. Hadley Centre Technical Note 2. Available from Met Office, London Road Bracknell, RG12 2SZ, UK.
Mitchell, J.F.B., T.C. Johns, W.J. Ingram and J.A. Lowe, 2000: The effect of stabilising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on global and regional climate change. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2977-2930.
Monahan, A.H., J.C. Fyfe and G.M. Flato, 2000: A regime view of Northern Hemisphere atmospheric variability and change under global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27, 1139-1142.
Murphy, J.M., 1995: Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part III: analysis of global-mean response using simple models. J. Climate, 8, 496-514.
Murphy, J.M. and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1995: Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part II: spatial and temporal structure of response. J. Climate, 8, 57-80.
Myhre, G., E.J. Highwood, K.P. Shine and F. Stordal, 1998: New estimates of radiative forcing due to well mixed greenhouse gases. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 2715-2718.
Nakic´enovic´, N., J. Alcamo, G. Davis, B. de Vries, J. Fenhann, S. Gaffin, K. Gregory, A. Grübler, T. Y. Jung, T. Kram, E. L. La Rovere, L. Michaelis, S. Mori, T. Morita, W. Pepper, H. Pitcher, L. Price, K. Raihi, A. Roehrl, H.-H. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor, Z. Dadi, 2000: IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 599 pp.
Noda, A. and T. Tokioka, 1989: The effect of doubling the CO2 concentration on convective and non-convective precipitation in a general circulation model coupled with a simple mixed layer ocean model. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 67, 1057-1069.
Noda, A., K. Yoshimatsu, A. Kitoh and H. Koide, 1999a: Relationship between natural variability and CO2-induced warming pattern: MRI coupled atmosphere/mixed-layer (slab) ocean GCM (SGCM) Experiment. 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies , 10-15 January 1999, Dallas, Texas. pp. 355-358, American Meteorological Society, Boston. Mass.
Noda, A., K. Yoshimatsu, S. Yukimoto, K. Yamaguchi and S. Yamaki, 1999b: Relationship between natural variability and CO2-induced warming pattern: MRI AOGCM Experiment. 10th Symposium on Global Change Studies, 10-15 January 1999, Dallas, Texas. American Meteorological Society, Boston. Mass. pp. 359-362
Noda, A., S. Yukimoto, S. Maeda, T. Uchiyama, K. Shibata and S. Yamaki, 2001: A new meteorological research institute coupled GCM (MRI-CGCM2): Transient response to greenhouse gas and aerosol scenarios. CGER's supercomputer monograph report Vol. 7, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan, 66pp (in press).
Nozawa, T., S. Emori, A. Numaguti, Y. Tsushima, T. Takemura, T. Nakajima, A. Abe-Ouchi and M. Kimoto, 2001: Projections of future climate change in the 21st century simulated by the CCSR/NIES CGCM under the IPCC SRES scenarios, In: Present and Future of Modelling Global Environmental Change - Toward Integrated Modelling, T. Matsuno (ed), Terra Scientific Publishing Company, Tokyo (in press).
Osborn, T.J., K.R. Briffa, S.F.B. Tett, P.D. Jones and R.M. Trigo, 1999. Evaluation of the North Atlantic Oscillation as simulated by a coupled climate model. Clim. Dyn., 15, 685-702.
Paeth, H., A. Hense, R. Glowienka-Hense, R. Voss and U. Cubasch, 1999: The North Atlantic Oscillation as an indicator for greenhouse-gas induced climate change. Clim. Dyn., 15, 953-960.
Palmer, T. N., 1999. A nonlinear dynamical perspective on climate prediction. J. Climate, 12, 575-591.
Parey, S, 1994: Simulations de Trente ans 1xCO2, 2xCO2, 3xCO2, avec le modele du LMD (64x50x11) premiers resultata. EDF (Electricité de France), Direction des études et Recherches, HE-33/94/008.
Price, C., and D. Rind, 1994a: Possible implications of global climate change on global lightning distributions and frequencies. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 10,823-10,831.
Price, C., and D. Rind, 1994b: The impact of a 2xCO2 climate on lightning-caused fires. J. Climate, 7, 1484-1494.
Räisänen, J., 1997: Objective comparison of patterns of CO2-induced climate change in coupled GCM experiments. Clim. Dyn., 13, 197-221.
Räisänen, J., 2000: CO2-induced climate change in Northern Europe: comparison of 12 CMIP2 experiments. Reports Meteorology and Climatology No. 87, SMHI, 59 pp.
Räisänen, J., 2001: CO2-induced climate change in CMIP2 experiments. Quantification of agreement and role of internal variability. J. Climate, in press.
Ramstein, G., Y. Serafini-Le Treut, H. Le Treut, M. Forichon and S. Joussaume, 1998. Cloud processes associated with past and future climate changes. Clim. Dyn., 14, 233-247.
Raper, S.C.B, T.M.L. Wigley and R.A. Warrick, 1996: Global sea-level rise: past and future, In: Sea-Level rise and Coastal Subsidence, J.D. Milliman and B.U. Haq (eds), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 11-46.
Raper, S.C.B. and U. Cubasch, 1996: Emulation of the results from a coupled general circulation model using a simple climate model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23, 1107-1110.
Raper, S.C.B., J.M. Gregory and T.J. Osborn, 2001a: Use of an upwelling-diffusion energy balance climate model to simulate and diagnose AOGCM results. Clim. Dyn., in press.
Raper, S.C.B., J.M. Gregory and R.J. Stouffer, 2001b: The role of climate sensitivity and ocean heat uptake on AOGCM transient temperature and thermal expansion response. J. Climate, in press.
Roeckner, E., L. Bengtsson, J. Feichter, J. Lelieveld and H. Rodhe, 1999: Transient climate change with a coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM including the tropospheric sulfur cycle. J. Climate, 12, 3004-3032.
Royer, J.-F., F. Chauvin, B. Timbal, P. Araspin and D. Grimal, 1998. A GCM study of the impact of greenhouse gas increase on the frequency of occurrence of tropical cyclones. Clim. Change, 38, 307-343.
Russell, G.L., J.R. Miller and D. Rind, 1995: A coupled atmosphere-ocean model for transient climate change studies. Atmosphere-Ocean, 33, 683-730.
Russell, G.L. and D. Rind, 1999. Response to CO2 transient increase in the GISS coupled model. Regional cooling in a warming climate. J. Climate, 12, 531-539.
Sarmiento, J.L., T.M.C. Hughes, R.J. Stouffer and S. Manabe, 1998: Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming. Nature, 393, 245-249.
Schimel, D., I.G. Enting, M. Heimann, T.M.L. Wigley, D. Raynaud, D. Alves and U. Siegenthaler, 1994. CO2 and the carbon cycle. In: Climate Change, 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios. [J.T. Houghton, L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, H Lee, B.A. Callander, E.F. Haites, N. Harris and K. Maskell (eds.)] Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 35-71.
Schimel, D., M. Grubb, F. Joos, R. Kufmann, R. Moss, W. Ogana, R. Richels, T. Wigley , 1997: Stabilisation of Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: Physical, Biological and Socio-economic Implications. [J.T. Houghton, L. Gylvan Meira Filho, D.J. Griggs and K. Maskell (eds.)] IPCC Technical Paper III.
Schubert, M., J. Perlwitz, R. Blender, K. Fraedrich, and F. Lunkeit, 1998: North Atlantic cyclones in CO2-induced warm climate simulations: Frequency, intensity, and tracks. Clim. Dyn. , 14, 827-837.
Senior, C.A., 1999: Comparison of mechanisms of cloud-climate feedbacks in a GCM. J. Clim., 12, 1480-1489.
Senior, C.A. and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2000: The time-dependence of climate sensitivity. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 2685-2688.
Shindell, D.T., R.L. Miller, G.A. Schmidt and L. Pandolfo, 1999. Simulation of recent northern winter climate trends by greenhouse gas forcing. Nature, 399, 452-455.
Shine, K.P., R.G. Derwent, D.J. Wuebbles and J.-J.Morcrette, 1990: Radiative forcing of climate. In: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment. [Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 41-68.
Siegenthaler, U. and Joos, F., 1992: Use of a simple model for studying oceanic tracer distributions and the global carbon cycle. Tellus, 44B, 186-207.
Sinclair, M.R. and I.G. Watterson, 1999: Objective assessment of extratropical weather systems in simulated climates. J. Climate, 12, 3467-3485.
Smith, S. J., T.M.L.Wigley, N. Nakic´enovic´ and S.C.B. Raper, 2001: Climate implications of greenhouse gas emission scenarios. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 65, 195-204.
Sokolov, A.P. and P.H. Stone 1998: A flexible climate model for use in integrated assessments. Clim. Dyn., 14, 291-303.
Stendel, M., T. Schmith, E. Roeckner and U. Cubasch, 2000: The climate of the 21st century: transient simulations with a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Danmarks Klimacenter Report 00-6, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark, ISBN: 87-7478-427-7.
Stocker T.F., D.G. Wright and L.A. Mysak, 1992: A zonally averaged, coupled ocean-atmosphere model for paleoclimate studies. J. Climate, 5, 773-797.
Stocker, T.F. and A. Schmittner, 1997: Influence of CO2 emission rates on the stability of the thermohaline circulation. Nature, 388, 862-865.
Stouffer, R.J. and S. Manabe, 1999: Response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide: Sensitivity to the rate of increase. J. Climate, 12, 2224-2237.
Tett, S.F.B., 1995: Simulation of El Niño-Southern Oscillation-like variability in a global coupled AOGCM and its response to CO2-increase. J. Climate, 8, 1473-1502.
Tett, S.F.B., T.C. Johns and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1997: Global and regional variability in a coupled AOGCM. Clim. Dyn., 13, 303 -323.
Thompson, D.W.J. and J.M. Wallace, 1998: The Arctic Oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297-1300.
Timmermann, A., J. Oberhuber, A. Bacher, M. Esch, M. Latif and E. Roeckner, 1999: Increased El Niño frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming. Nature, 398, 694-696.
Tokioka, T., A. Noda, A. Kitoh, Y. Nikaidou, S. Nakagawa, T. Motoi, Y. Yukimoto and K. Takata, 1995: Transient CO2 experiment with the MRI CGCM - Quick report. J. Met. Soc. Japan, 73, 817-826.
Tokioka, T., A. Noda, A. Kitoh, Y. Nikaidou, S. Nakagawa, T. Motoi, Y. Yukimoto and K. Takata, 1996: Transient CO2 experiment with the MRI CGCM - Annual mean response -. CGER's Supercomputer Monograph Report Vol. 2, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan, 86 pp.
Ulbrich, U., and M. Christoph, 1999: A shift of the NAO and increasing storm track activity over Europe due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. Clim. Dyn., 15, 551-559.
United Nations, 1992: United Nations framework convention on climate change, UNFCCC. http://www.unfccc.int/
Visser, H., R.J.M. Folkert, J. Hoekstra and J.J.de Wolff, 2000: Identifying key sources of uncertainty in climate change projections. Clim. Change, 45, 421-457.
Voss, R. and U. Mikolajewicz, 2001: Long-term climate changes due to increased CO2 concentration in the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM3/LSG. Clim. Dyn., 17, 45-60.
Wallace, J. M., 2000. North Atlantic Oscillation / annular mode: Two paradigms - one phenomenon. Quart. J. R. Met. Soc, 126, 791-806.
Washington, W.M., J.W. Weatherly, G.A. Meehl, A.J. Semtner Jr., T.W. Bettge, A.P. Craig, W.G. Strand Jr., J.M. Arblaster, V.B. Wayland, R. James and Y. Zhang, 2000: Parallel climate model (PCM) control and transient simulations. Clim. Dyn., 16, 755-774.
Watterson, I. G., M.R. Dix and R.A. Colman, 1998: A comparison of present and doubled CO2 climates and feedbacks simulated by three general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 1943-1956.
Watterson, I. G. 2000: Interpretation of simulated global warming using a simple model. J. Climate, 13, 202-215.
Weaver, A.J., M. Eby, A.F. Fanning and E.C. Wiebe, 1998: Simulated influence of carbon dioxide, orbital forcing and ice sheets on the climate of the last glacial maximum. Nature, 394, 847-853.
Weaver, A.J. and E.C. Wiebe, 1999: On the sensitivity of projected oceanic thermal expansion to the parameterisation of sub-grid scale ocean mixing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 3461-3464.
Wetherald, R. T. and S. Manabe, 1999: Detectability of summer dryness caused by greenhouse warming. Climatic Change, 43, 495-511.
Wiebe, E.C. and A.J. Weaver, 2000: On the sensitivity of global warming experiments to the parameterisation of sub-grid scale ocean mixing. Clim. Dyn., 15, 875-893.
Wigley T.M.L. and Raper S.C.B., 1987: Thermal expansion of sea water associated with global warming. Nature, 330, 127-131.
Wigley, T.M.L., 1991: Could reducing fossil-fuel emissions cause global warming? Nature, 349, 503-506.
Wigley T.M.L. and S.C.B. Raper,1992: Implications for climate and sea level of revised IPCC emissions scenarios. Nature, 357, 293-300.
Wigley, T.M.L. 1993: Balancing the carbon budget. Implications for projections of future carbon dioxide concentration changes. Tellus, 45B, 409-425.
Wigley, T.M.L, R. Richels and J.A. Edmonds, 1996: Economic and environmental choices in the stabilisation of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Nature, 379, 242-245.
Wigley, T.M.L. and S.J. Smith, 1998: Uncertainties in projections of future global-mean temperature change. In: Do We Understand Global Climate change? Norwegian Academy of Technological Sciences (NTVA), Trondheim, Norway, 185-195.
Wigley, T.M.L., 1999: The science of climate change: global and U.S. perspectives. Pew Centre, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, VA, USA, 48pp.
Wigley, T.M.L., 2000: TAR version of MAGICC forcing. http://www.acacia.ucar.edu
Williams, K. D., C.A. Senior and J.F.B. Mitchell, 2001. Transient climate change in the Hadley Centre models: The roles of physical processes. J. Climate, in press.
Yao, M-S. and Del Genio, A., 1999. Effects of parameterisation on the simulation of climate changes in the GISS GCM. J. Climate., 12, 761-779.
Yonetani, T. and H.B. Gordon, 2001: Simulated changes in the frequency of extremes and regional features of seasonal/annual temperature and precipitation when atmospheric CO2 is doubled. J.Climate, in press.
Yukimoto, S., A. Noda, A. Kitoh, M. Sugi, Y. Kitamura, M. Hosaka, K. Shibata, S. Maeda and T. Uchiyama, 2001: A new meteorological research institute coupled GCM (MRI-CGCM2) - model climate and its variability. Pap. Meteor. Geophys., 51, 47-88.
Zhang, Y. and W.-Ch. Wang, 1997: Model simulated northern winter cyclone and anti-cyclone activity under a greenhouse warming scenario. J. Climate, 10, 1616-1634.
Zhang, Y., J.M. Wallace and D.S. Battisti, 1997: ENSO-like interdecadal variability: 1900-93. J. Climate, 10, 1004-1020.
Zorita, E. and F. González-Rouco, 2000. Disagreement between predictions of the future Atrctic Oscillation as simulated in two different climate models: Implications for global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1755-1758
Zwiers, F.W. and V. V. Kharin, 1998: Changes in the extremes of the climate simulated by CCC GCM2 under CO2-doubling. J. Climate, 11, 2200-2222.
Other reports in this collection