Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
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7. Physical Climate Processes and Feedbacks

Content

Executive Summary

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Issues of Continuing Interest
7.1.2 New Results since the SAR
7.1.3 Predictability of the Climate System

7.2 Atmospheric Processes and Feedbacks

7.2.1 Physics of the Water Vapour and Cloud Feedbacks
7.2.1.1 Water vapour feedback
7.2.1.2 Representation of water vapour in models
7.2.1.3 Summary on water vapour feedbacks
7.2.2 Cloud Processes and Feedbacks
7.2.2.1 General design of cloud schemes within climate models
7.2.2.2 Convective processes
7.2.2.3 Boundary-layer mixing and cloudiness
7.2.2.4 Cloud-radiative feedback processes
7.2.2.5 Representation of cloud processes in models
7.2.3 Precipitation
7.2.3.1 Precipitation processes
7.2.3.2 Precipitation modelling
7.2.3.3 The temperature-moisture feedback and implications for precipitation and extremes
7.2.4 Radiative Processes
7.2.4.1 Radiative processes in the troposphere
7.2.4.2 Radiative processes in the stratosphere
7.2.5 Stratospheric Dynamics
7.2.6 Atmospheric Circulation Regimes
7.2.7 Processes Involving Orography

7.3 Oceanic Processes and Feedbacks

7.3.1 Surface Mixed Layer
7.3.2 Convection
7.3.3 Interior Ocean Mixing
7.3.4 Mesoscale Eddies
7.3.5 Flows over Sills and through Straits
7.3.6 Horizontal Circulation and Boundary Currents
7.3.7 Thermohaline Circulation and Ocean Reorganisations

7.4 Land-Surface Processes and Feedbacks

7.4.1 Land-Surface Parametrization (LSP) Development
7.4.2 Land-Surface Change
7.4.3 Land Hydrology, Runoff and Surface- Atmosphere Exchange

7.5 Cryosphere Processes and Feedbacks

7.5.1 Snow Cover and Permafrost
7.5.2 Sea Ice
7.5.3 Land Ice

7.6 Processes, Feedbacks and Phenomena in the Coupled System

7.6.1 Surface Fluxes and Transport of Heat and Fresh Water
7.6.2 Ocean-atmosphere Interactions
7.6.3 Monsoons and Teleconnections
7.6.4 North Atlantic Oscillation and Decadal Variability
7.6.5 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
7.6.5.1 ENSO processes
7.6.5.2 ENSO and tropical storms

7.7 Rapid Changes in the Climate System

References

Co-ordinating Lead Author
T.F. Stocker

Lead Authors
G.K.C. Clarke, H. Le Treut, R.S. Lindzen, V.P. Meleshko, R.K. Mugara, T.N. Palmer, R.T. Pierrehumbert, P.J. Sellers, K.E. Trenberth, J. Willebrand

Contributing Authors
R.B. Alley, O.E. Anisimov, C. Appenzeller, R.G. Barry, J.J. Bates, R. Bindschadler, G.B. Bonan, C.W. Böning, S. Bony, H. Bryden, M.A. Cane, J.A. Curry, T. Delworth, A.S. Denning, R.E. Dickinson, K. Echelmeyer, K. Emanuel, G. Flato, I. Fung, M. Geller, P.R. Gent, S.M. Griffies, I. Held, A. Henderson-Sellers, A.A.M. Holtslag, F. Hourdin, J.W. Hurrell, V.M. Kattsov, P.D. Killworth, Y. Kushnir, W.G. Large, M. Latif, P. Lemke, M.E. Mann, G. Meehl, U. Mikolajewicz, W. O'Hirok, C.L. Parkinson, A. Payne, A. Pitman, J. Polcher, I. Polyakov, V. Ramaswamy, P.J. Rasch, E.P. Salathe, C. Schär, R.W. Schmitt, T.G. Shepherd, B.J. Soden, R.W. Spencer, P. Taylor, A. Timmermann, K.Y. Vinnikov, M. Visbeck, S.E. Wijffels, M. Wild

Review Editors
S. Manabe, P. Mason



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