Climate Change 2001:
Working Group I: The Scientific Basis
Other reports in this collection

References

Aber, J., W. McDowell, K. Nadelhoffer, A. Magill, G. Bernstson, M. Kamakea, S. McNulty, W. Currie, L. Rustad, I. Fernandez, 1998: Nitrogen saturation in temperate forest ecosystems. BioScience, 48, 921-934.
Allen, A.S., J.A. Andrews, A.C. Finzi, R. Matamala, D.D. Richter and W.H. Schlesinger, 2000: Effects of free-air CO2 enrichement (FACE) on belowground processes in a Pinus taeda forest. Ecological Applications, 10, 437-448.
Altabet, M.A., R. Francois, D.W. Murray, and W.L. Prell, 1995: Climate-Related Variations in Denitrification in the Arabian Sea From Sediment 15N/14N Ratios. Nature, 373, 506-509.
Andersen, K. K., A. Armengaud, and C. Genthon, 1998: Atmospheric dust under glacial and interglacial conditions, Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 2281-2284, 1998.
Andres, R. J., Marland, G., Boden, T., and Bischof, S., 2000: Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption and cement manufacture, 1751-1991, and an estimate of their isotopic composition and latitudinal distribution. In: The Carbon Cycle, [Wigley, T.M.L. and D.S. Schimel (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 53-62.
Antoine, D., J.M. Andre, and A. Morel, 1996: Oceanic primary production. 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 57-69.
Apps, M.J., W.A. Kurz, R.J. Luxmoore, L.O. Nilsson, R.A. Sedjo, R. Schmidt, L.G. Simpson, and T.S. Vinson, 1993: Boreal Forests and Tundra. Water Air Soil Pollution, 70, 39-53.
Archer, D.E, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1994: Effect of deep-sea sedimentary calcite preservation on atmospheric CO2 concentration. Nature, 367, 260-263.
Archer, D.E., and K. Johnson, 2000: A Model of the iron cycle in the ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 269-279.
Archer, D.E., T. Takahashi, S. Sutherland, J. Goddard, D. Chipman, K. Rodgers, and H. Ogura, 1996: Daily, seasonal and interannual variability of sea-surface carbon and nutrient concentration in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 43, 779-808.
Archer, D.E, H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1997: Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2. Geophysical Research Letters, 24, 405-408.
Archer, D.E, H. Kheshgi, and E. Maier-Reimer, 1998: Dynamics of fossil fuel CO2 neutralization by marine CaCO3. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 259-276.
Archer, D.E, A. Winguth, D. Lea, and N. Mahowald, 2000: What caused the glacial/interglacial atmospheric pCO2 cycles? Reviews of Geophysics, 38, 159-189.
Archer, S., T.W. Boutton, and K.A. Hibbard, 2001: Trees in grasslands: biogeochemical consequences of woody plant expansion. In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles and their Interrelationship with Climate [Schulze, E.-A., S.P. Harrison, M. Heimann, E.A. Holland, J. Lloyd, I.C. Prentice, and D.S. Schimel (eds.)], Academic Press.
Asrar, G., Myneni R.B., and Choudhury, B.J., 1992: Spatial heterogeneity in vegetation canopies and remote sensing of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation: a modeling study. Remote Sensing Environment, 41, 85-103.
Atjay, G.L., P. Ketner, and P. Duvigneaud, 1979: Terrestrial primary production and phytomass. In: The Global Carbon Cycle [Bolin, B., E.T. Degens, S. Kempe, and P. Ketner (eds.)], John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, pp. 129-181.
Aubinet, M., A. Grelle, A. Ibrom, U. Rannik, J. Moncrieff, T. Foken, A.S. Kowalski, P.H. Martin, P. Berbigier, C. Bernhofer, R. Clement, J. Elbers, A. Granier, T. Grunwald, K. Morgenstern, K. Pilegaard, C. Rebmann, W. Snijders, R. Valentini and T. Vesala, 2000: Estimates of the annual net carbon and water exchange of forests: The EUROFLUX methodology. Advances in Ecological Research, 30, 113-175.
Aumont, O., 1998: Étude du cycle naturel du carbone dans un modèle 3D de l'océan mondial. Ph.D. thesis, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, Paris 95005.
Aumont, O., S. Belviso and P. Monfray, 2001a: Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) sea surface distributions simulated from a global 3-D ocean carbon cycle model. Journal of Geophysical Research, (in press)
Aumont, O., J.C. Orr, P. Monfray, W. Ludwig, P. Amiotte-Suchet and J.L. Probst, 2001b: Riverine-driven interhemispheric transport of carbon. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, (in press)
Bacastow, R.B., 1976: Modulation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by the southern oscillation. Nature, 261, 116-118.
Bacastow, R.B., 1993: The effect of temperature change of the warm surface waters of the oceans on atmospheric CO2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 319-333.
Bacastow, R.B., C.D. Keeling, T.J. Lueker, M. Wahlen, and W.G. Mook, 1996: The 13C Suess effect in the world surface oceans and its implications for oceanic uptake of CO2 - Analysis of observations at Bermuda. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 335-346.
Baldocchi, D.D., B.B. Hicks, T.P. Meyers, 1988: Measuring biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of biologically related gases with micrometeorological methods. Ecology, 69, 1331-1340.
Balkanski, Y., P. Monfray, M. Battle, and M. Heimann, 1999: Ocean primary production derived from satellite data: An evaluation with atmospheric oxygen measurements. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 257-271.
Barnola, J.M., M. Anklin, J. Porcheron, D. Raynaud, J. Schwander, and B. Stauffer, 1995: CO2 evolution during the last millennium as recorded by Antarctic and Greenland ice. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 47, 264-272.
Bates, N.R., A.F. Michaels, and A.H. Knap, 1996: Seasonal and interannual variability of oceanic carbon dioxide species at the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site. Deep-Sea Research Part II-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 43, 347-383.
Batjes, N.H., 1996: Total carbon and nitrogen in the soils of the world. European Journal of Soil Science 47: 151-163.
Battle, M., M. Bender, T. Sowers, P.P. Tans, J.H. Butler, J.W. Elkins, J.T. Ellis, T. Conway, N. Zhang, P. Lang, and A.D. Clarke, 1996: Atmospheric gas concentrations over the past century measured in air from firn at the South Pole. Nature, 383, 231-235.
Battle, M., M. Bender, P.P. Tans, J.W.C. White, J.T. Ellis, T. Conway, and R.J. Francey, 2000: Global carbon sinks and their variability, inferred from atmospheric O2 and d13C. Science, 287, 2467-2470.
Beerling, D.J., H.H. Birks, and F.I. Woodward, 1995: Rapid late-glacial atmospheric CO2 changes reconstructed from the stomatal density record of fossil leaves. Journal of Quaternary Science, 10, 379-384.
Bender, M., T. Sowers, and L. Labeyrie, 1994: The Dole effect and its variations during the last 130,000 years as measured in the VOSTOK ice core. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 363-376.
Bender, M., T. Ellis, P. Tans, R. Francey, and D. Lowe, 1996: Variability in the O2/N2 ratio of southern hemisphere air, 1991-1994 - Implications for the carbon cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 9-21.
Berger, A.L., 1978: Long-term variations of caloric insolation resulting from the Earth's orbital elements. Quaternary Research, 9, 139-167.
Bergh, J., S. Linder, T. Lundmark, B. Elfving, 1999: The effect of water and nutrient availability on the productivity of Norway spruce in northern and southern Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management, 119, 51-62.
Berner, R.A., 1993: Weathering and its effect on atmospheric CO2 over phanerozoic time. Chemical Geology, 107, 373-374.
Berner, R.A., 1997: The rise of plants and their effect on weathering and atmospheric CO2. Science, 276, 544-546.
Bickle, M.J., 1994: The role of metamorphic decarbonation reactions in returning strontium to the silicate sediment mass. Nature, 367, 699-704.
Bird, M.I., J. Lloyd, and G.D. Farquhar, 1994: Terrestrial carbon storage at the LGM. Nature, 371, 585.
Blume, H.P., H. Eger, E. Fleischhauer, A. Hebel, C. Reij, and K.G. Steiner, 1998: Towards sustainable land use. Advances in Geoecology, 31, 1625pp.
Bolin, B. and Keeling C.D., 1963: Large-scale atmospheric mixing as deduced from the seasonal and meridional variations of carbon dioxide. Journal of Geophysical Research, 68, 3899-3920.
Bolin, B., Sukumar, R., P. Ciais, W. Cramer, P. Jarvis, H. Kheshgi, C. Nobre, S. Semenov, W. Steffen, 2000: Global Perspective. In: IPCC, Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry. A Special Report of the IPCC [Watson, R.T., I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo and D.J. Dokken (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 23-51.
Bondeau, A., D.W. Kicklighter, and J. Kaduk, 1999: Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): importance of vegetation structure on seasonal NPP estimates. Global Change Biology, 5, 35-45.
Boone, R.D., K.J. Nadelhoffer, J.D. Canary, and J.P. Kaye, 1998: Roots exert a strong influence on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Nature, 396, 570-572.
Bopp, L., P. Monfray, O. Aumont, J.-L. Dufresne, H. LeTreut, G. Madec, L. Terray, and J. Orr, 2001: Potential impact of climate change on marine export production. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 15(1), 81-100.
Bousquet, P., P. Ciais, P. Peylin, M. Ramonet, and P. Monfray, 1999: Inverse modeling of annual atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks 1. Method and control inversion. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 104, 26161-26178.
Bousquet, P., P. Peylin, P. Ciais, C. Le Quéré, P. Friedlingstein and P. P. Tans, 2000: Regional changes of CO2 fluxes over land and oceans since 1980. Science, 290, 1342-1346.
Boutin, J., J. Etcheto, Y. Dandonneau, D.C.E. Bakker, R.A. Feely, H.Y. Inoue, M. Ishii, R.D. Ling, P.D. Nightingale, N. Metzl, and R. Wanninkhof, 1999: Satellite sea surface temperature: a powerful tool for interpreting in situ pCO2 measurements in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51, 490-508.
Boyd, P.W., A. Watson, C.S. Law, E. Abraham, T. Trull, R. Murdoch, D.C.E. Bakker, A.R. Bowie, K. Buesseler, H. Chang, M. Charette, P. Croot, K. Downing, R. Frew, M. Gall, M. Hadfield, J. Hall, M. Harvey, G. Jameson, J. La Roche, M. Liddicoat, R. Ling, M. Maldonado, R.M. McKay, S. Nodder, S. Pickmere, R. Pridmore, S. Rintoul, K. Safi, P. Sutton, R. Strzepek, K. Tanneberger, S. Turner, A. Waite, and J. Zeldis, 2000: A mesoscale pytoplankton bloom in the polar Southern Ocean stimulated by iron fertilization. Nature, 407, 695-702.
Boyle, E.A., 1988: The role of vertical chemical fractionation in controlling late Quaternary atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Geophysical Research, 93, 15701-15714.
Braun, S., Rihm, B., Schindler, C., and Fluckiger, W., 2000: Growth of mature beech in relation to ozone and nitrogen deposition: an epidemiological approach. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 116, 357-364.
Braswell, B.H., D.S. Schimel, E. Linder, and B. Moore, 1997: The response of global terrestrial ecosystems to interannual temperature variability. Science, 278, 870-872.
Bretherton, F.P., K. Bryan, and J.D. Woods, 1990: Time-dependent greenhouse-gas-induced climate change. In: Climate Change, The IPCC Scientific Assessment [Houghton, J.T., G.J. Jenkins and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 173-194.
British Petroleum Company, 2000: BP Statistical Review of World Energy 1999. British Petroleum Company, London, UK.
Broecker, W.S., and T.H. Peng, 1982: Tracers in the sea, Eldigio, Palisades, pp. 691.
Broecker, W.S. and T.H. Peng, 1992: Interhemispheric transport of carbon dioxide by ocean circulation. Nature, 356, 587-589.
Broecker, W.S., and G.M. Henderson, 1998: The sequence of events surrounding Termination II and their implications for the cause of glacial-interglacial CO2 changes. Paleoceanography, 13, 352-364.
Broecker, W.S., S. Sutherland, W. Smethie, T.H. Peng, and G. Ostlund, 1995: Oceanic radiocarbon: separation of the natural and bomb components. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 263-288.
Broecker, W., J. Lynch-Stieglitz, D. Archer, M. Hofmann, E. Maier-Reimer, O. Marchal, T. Stocker, and N. Gruber, 1999: How strong is the Harvardton-Bear constraint? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 817-820.
Brovkin, V., A. Ganopolski, and Y. Svirezhev, 1997: A continuous climate-vegetation classification for use in climate-biosphere studies. Ecological Modelling, 101, 251-261.
Brown, S., J. Sathaye, M. Cannell, P. Kauppi, P. Burschel, A. Grainger, J. Heuveldop, R. Leemans, P. Moura Costa, M. Pinard, S. Nilsson, W. Schopfhauser, R. Sedjo, N. Singh, M. Trexler, J. van Minnen, S. Weyers, 1996: Management of forests for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: IPCC Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses, Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, R.H. Moss and D.J. Dokken (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 773-797.
Bryant, D.M., E.A. Holland, T.R. Seastedt and M.D. Walker, 1998: Analysis of litter decomposition in an alpine tundra. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne De Botanique, 76, 1295-1304.
Buchmann, N., and E.D. Schulze, 1999: Net CO2 and H2O fluxes of terrestrial ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 751-760.
Burrows, W.H., J.F. Compton, and M.B. Hoffmann, 1998: Vegetation thickening and carbon sinks in the grazed woodlands of north-east Australia. In: Proceedings Australian Forest Growers Conference, Lismore, NSW, pp. 305-316.
Caldeira, K., and P.B. Duffy, 2000: The role of the Southern Ocean in uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. Science, 287, 620-622.
Cao, M., and F.I. Woodward, 1998a: Dynamic responses of terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycling to global climate change. Nature, 393, 249-252.
Cao, M.K., and F.I. Woodward, 1998b: Net primary and ecosystem production and carbon stocks of terrestrial ecosystems and their responses to climate change. Global Change Biology, 4, 185-198.
Carter, A.J. and R.J. Scholes, 2000: Spatial Global Database of Soil Properties. IGBP Global Soil Data Task CD-ROM. International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Data Information Systems. Toulouse, France.
Catubig, N.R., D.E. Archer, R. Francois, P. deMenocal, W. Howard and E.-F. Yu, 1998: Global deep-sea burial rate of calcium carbonate during the last glacial maximum. Paleoceanography, 13, 298-310.
Cerling, T.E., Y. Wang, and J. Quade, 1993: Expansion of C4 ecosystems as an indicator of global ecological change in the late miocene. Nature, 361, 344-345.
Cerling, T.E., J.M. Harris, B.J. MacFadden, M.G. Leakey, J. Quade, V. Eisenmann, 1997: Global vegetation change through the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Nature, 389, 153-158.
Chapin, F.S., 1980: The mineral-nutrition of wild plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 11, 233-260.
Chapman, W.L., and J.E. Walsh, 1993: Recent variations of sea ice and air-temperature in high- latitudes. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 74, 33-47.
Ciais, P., P.P. Tans, and M. Trolier, 1995a: A large northern-hemisphere terrestrial CO2 sink indicated by the 13C/12C ratio of atmospheric CO2. Science, 269, 1098-1102.
Ciais, P., P.P. Tans, J.W.C. White, M. Trolier, R.J. Francey, J.A. Berry, D.R. Randall, P.J. Sellers, J.G. Collatz, and D.S. Schimel, 1995b: Partitioning of ocean and land uptake of CO2 as inferred by 13C measurements from the NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory Global Air Sampling Network. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 100, 5051-5070.
Ciais, P., A.S. Denning, P.P. Tans, J.A. Berry, D.A. Randall, G.J. Collatz, P.J. Sellers, J.W.C. White, M. Trolier, H.A.J. Meijer, R.J. Francey, P. Monfray, and M. Heimann, 1997: A three-dimensional synthesis study of 18O in atmospheric CO2. 1. Surface Fluxes. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 102, 5857-5872.
Ciais, P., P. Friedlingstein, D.S. Schimel, and P.P. Tans, 1999: A global calculation of the delta 13C of soil respired carbon: Implications for the biospheric uptake of anthropogenic CO2. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 519-530.
Cienciala, E., S. W. Running, A. Lindroth, A. Grelle, and M.G. Ryan, 1998: Analysis of carbon and water fluxes from the NOPEX boreal forest: comparison of measurments with Forest-BGC simulations. Journal of Hydrology, 212-213, 62-78.
Clark, F.E., 1977: Internal cycling of 15N in shortgrass prairie. Ecology, 58, 1322-1333.
Clymo, R.S., J. Turunen, and K. Tolonen, 1998: Carbon accumulation in peatland. Oikos, 81, 368-388.
Coale, K.H., K.S. Johnson, S.E. Fitzwater, R.M. Gordon, S. Tanner, F.P. Chavez, L. Ferioli, C. Sakamoto, P. Rogers, F. Millero, P. Steinberg, P. Nightingale, D. Cooper, W.P. Cochlan, M.R. Landry, J. Constantinou, G. Rollwagen, A. Trasvina, and R. Kudela, 1996: A massive phytoplankton bloom induced by an ecosystem-scale iron fertilization experiment in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Nature, 383, 495-501.
Cole, C.V., C. Cerri, K. Minami, A. Mosier, N. Rosenberg, D. Sauerbeck, J. Dumanski, J. Duxbury, J. Freney, R. Gupta, O. Heinemeyer, T. Kolchugina, J. Lee, K. Paustian, D. Powlson, N. Sampson, H. Tiessen, M. Van Noordwijk, Q. Zhao, I.P. Abrol, T. Barnwell, C.A. Campbell, R.L Desjardin, C. Feller, P. Garin, M.J. Glendining, E.G. Gregorich, D. Johnson, J. Kimble, R. Lal, C. Monreal, D.S. Ojima, M. Padgett, W. Post, W. Sombroek, C. Tarnocai, T. Vinson, S. Vogel, and G. Ward, 1996: Agricultural options for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. In: Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera and R.H. Moss (eds.)], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 745-771.
Collatz, G.J., J.A. Berry, and J.S. Clark, 1998: Effects of climate and atmospheric CO2 partial pressure on the global distribution of C4 grasses: present, past, and future. Oecologia, 114, 441-454.
Conway, T.J., P.P. Tans, L.S. Waterman, K.W. Thoning, D.R. Kitzis, K.A. Masarie, and N. Zhang, 1994: Evidence for interannual varibaility of the carbon cycle from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory global air sampling network. Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 22831-22855.
Cox, P.M., R.A. Betts, C.D. Jones, S.A. Spall, and I.J. Totterdell, 2000: Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled model. Nature, 408, 184-187.
Cramer, W. and C.B. Field, 1999: Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): introduction. Global Change Biology, 5, III-IV.
Cramer, W., D.W. Kicklighter, A. Bondeau, B. Moore III, G. Churkina, B. Nemry, A. Ruimy, A.L. Schloss and the participants of the Potsdam NPP Model Intercomparison, 1999: Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) overview and key results. Global Change Biology, 5, 1-16.
Cramer, W., A. Bondeau, F.I. Woodward, I.C. Prentice, R.A. Betts, V. Brovkin, P.M. Cox, V. Fisher, J.A. Foley, A.D. Friend, C. Kucharik, M.R. Lomas, N. Ramankutty, S. Sitch, B. Smith, A. White, and C. Young-Molling, 2001: Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology (in press).
Crowley, T.J., 1995: Ice-age terrestrial carbon changes revisited. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 377-389.
Curtis, P.S., 1996: A meta-analysis of leaf gas exchange and nitrogen in trees grown under elevated carbon dioxide. Plant Cell and Environment, 19, 127-137.
Curtis, P.S., and X.Z. Wang, 1998: A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia, 113, 299-313.
Dai, A., and I.Y. Fung, 1993: Can climate variability contribute to the "missing" CO2 sink? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 599-609.
Dai, A., K.E. Trenberth and T.R. Karl, 1998: Global variations in droughts and wet spells: 1900-1995. Geophysical Research Letters, 25, 3367-3370.
De Fries, R.S. and J.R.G. Townshend, 1994: NDVI-derived land-cover classifications at a global-scale. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 15, 3567-3586.
De Fries, R.S., C.B. Field, I. Fung, C.O. Justice, S. Los, P.A. Matson, E. Matthews, H.A. Mooney, C.S. Potter, K. Prentice, P.J. Sellers, J.R.G. Townshend, C.J. Tucker, S.L. Ustin and P.M. Vitousek, 1995: Mapping the land-surface for global atmosphere-biosphere models - toward continuous distributions of vegetations functional- properties. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 100, 20867-20882.
De Fries, R.S., C.B. Field, I. Fung, G.J. Collatz, and L. Bounoua, 1999: Combining satellite data and biogeochemical models to estimate global effects of human-induced land cover change on carbon emissions and primary productivity. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 803-815.
Delgado, J.A., A.R. Mosier, D.W. Valentine, D.S. Schimel, and W.J. Parton, 1996: Long term 15N studies in a catena of the shortgrass steppe. Biogeochemistry, 32, 41-52.
DeLucia, E.H., J.G. Hamilton, S.L. Naidu, R.B. Thomas, J.A. Andrews, A. Finzi, M. Lavine, R. Matamala, J.E. Mohan, G.R. Hendrey, and W.H. Schlesinger, 1999: Net primary production of a forest ecosystem with experimental CO2 enrichment. Science, 284, 1177-1179.
Denman, K., E. Hofmann, and H. Marchant, 1996: Marine biotic responses to environmental change and feedbacks to climate, In: Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. [Houghton, J.T., L.G.M. Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. University Press, Cambridge, pp. 449-481.
Denning, A.S., I.Y. Fung, and D. Randall, 1995: Latitudinal gradient of atmospheric CO2 due to seasonal exchange with land biota. Nature, 376, 240-243.
Denning, A.S., D.A. Randall, G.J. Collatz, and P.J. Sellers, 1996: Simulations of terrestrial carbon metabolism and atmospheric CO2 in a general circulation model. Part 2: Spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric CO2. Tellus, 48B, 543-567.
Denning, A. S., M. Holzer, K. R. Gurney, M. Heimann, R. M. Law, P. J. Rayner, I. Y. Fung, S.-M. Fan, S. Taguchi, P. Friedlingstein, Y. Balkanski, J. Taylor, M. Maiss, and I. Levin, 1999. Three-dimensional transport and concentration of SF6: A model intercomparison study (TransCom 2). Tellus, 51B, 266-297.
Dettinger, M.D. and M. Ghil, 1998: Seasonal and interannual variations of atmospheric CO2 and climate. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 50, 1-24.
Dixon, R.K., S. Brown, R.A. Houghton, A.M. Solomon, M.C. Trexler and J. Wisniewski, 1994: Carbon Pools and Flux of Global Forest Ecosystems. Science, 263, 185-190.
Doney, S.C., 1999: Major challenges confronting marine biogeochemical modeling. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 705-714.
Drake, B.G., M.A. Gonzalez-Meler, and S.P. Long, 1997: More efficient plants: a consequence of rising atmospheric CO2? Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 48, 609-639.
Drake, B.G., J. Azcon-Bieto, J. Berry, J. Bunce, P. Dijkstra, J. Farrar, R.M. Gifford, M.A. Gonzalez-Meler, G. Koch, H. Lambers, J. Siedow and S. Wullschleger, 1999: Does elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration inhibit mitochondrial respiration in green plants? Plant Cell and Environment, 22, 649-657.
Duce, R.A., and N.W. Tindale, 1991: Atmospheric transport of iron and its deposition in the ocean. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 1715-1726.
Ducklow, H.W., 1999: The bacterial content of the oceanic euphotic zone. FEMS Microbiology-Ecology, 30, 1-10.
Edmonds, J.A., M.A. Wise, R.D. Sands, R.A. Brown, and H.S. Kheshgi, 1996: Agriculture, Land Use, and Commercial Biomass Energy: A Preliminary Integrated Analysis of the Potential Role of Biomass Energy for Reducing Future Greenhouse Related Emissions. PNNL- 111555. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA.
Edwards, R., P.N. Sedwick, V. Morgan, C.F. Boutron and S. Hong, 1998: Iron in ice cores from Law Dome, East Antarctica: implications for past deposition of aerosol iron. Annals of Glaciology, 27, 365-370.
Elderfield, H. and R.E.M. Rickaby, 2000: Oceanic Cd/P ratio and nutrient utilization in the glacial Southern Ocean. Nature, 405, 305-310.
Elliott, W.P., J.K. Angell and K.W. Thoning, 1991: Relation of atmospheric CO2 to tropical sea and air temperatures and precipitation. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 43, 144-155.
England, M.H., 1995: Using chlorofluorocarbons to assess ocean climate models. Geophysical Research Letters, 22, 3051-3054.
Enting, I.G. and J.V. Mansbridge, 1991: Latitudinal distribution of sources and sinks of CO2 - results of an inversion study. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 43, 156-170
Enting, I.G., T.M.L. Wigley, and M. Heimann, 1994: Future emissions and concentrations of carbon dioxide: Key ocean/atmosphere/land analyses. Division of Atmospheric Research, Commonw. Science and Ind. Research Organisation, Melbourne, Victoria.
Enting, I.G., C.M. Trudinger, and R.J. Francey, 1995: A Synthesis Inversion of the Concentration and 13C of Atmospheric CO2. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 47, 35-52.
Eppley, R.W., and B.J. Peterson, 1979: Particulate organic-matter flux and planktonic new production in the deep ocean. Nature, 282, 677-680.
Etheridge, D.M., L.P. Steele, R.L. Langenfelds, R.J. Francey, J.M. Barnola, and V.I. Morgan, 1996: Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric CO2 over the last 1000 years from air in Antarctic ice and firn. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 101, 4115-4128.
Falkowski, P.G., 1994: The role of phytoplankton photosynthesis in global biogeochemical cycles. Photosynthesis Research, 39, 235-258.
Falkowski, P.G., 1997: Evolution of the nitrogen cycle and its influence on the biological CO2 pump in the ocean. Nature, 387, 272-275.
Falkowski, P.G., R.T. Barber, and V. Smetacek, 1998: Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281, 200-206.
Falloon, P., Smith, P., Coleman, K. and Marshall, S. 1998: Estimating the size of the inert organic matter pool from total soil organic carbon content for use in the Rothamsted Carbon Model. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30, 1207-1211.
Fan, S., M. Gloor, and J. Mahlman, S. Pacala, J. Sarmiento, T. Takahashi and P. Tans, 1998: A large terrestrial carbon sink in North America implied by atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide data and models. Science, 282, 442-446.
Fan, S.M., Blaine T.L., and Sarmiento J.L., 1999: Terrestrial carbon sink in the Northern Hemisphere estimated from the atmospheric CO2 difference between Manna Loa and the South Pole since 1959. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51, 863-870.
Fanning, K.A., 1992: Nutrient provinces in the sea: concentration ratios, reaction rate ratios, and ideal covariation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 97, 5693-5712.
FAO, 1993a: 1992 Production Yearbook. FAO, Rome, Italy
FAO, 1993b: Forest Resources Assessment 1990. Tropical Countries. FAO Forestry Pap. No. 112. UN Food Agric. Org., Rome, Italy.
FAO, 1997: State of the world's forests. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Farquhar, G.D., 1997: Carbon dioxide and vegetation. Science, 278, 1411.
Farquhar, G.D., S.V. von Caemmerer, and J.A. Berry, 1980: A biochemical-model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C3 plants. Planta, 149, 78-90.
Farquhar, G.D., J. Lloyd, J.A. Taylor, L.B. Flanagan, J.P. Syvertsen, K.T. Hubick, S.C. Wong, and J.R. Ehleringer, 1993: Vegetation effects on the isotope composition of oxygen in atmospheric CO2. Nature, 363, 439-443.
Fearnside, P.M., 2000: Global warming and tropical land-use change: greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning, decomposition and soils in forest conversion, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation. Climatic Change, 46, 115-158.
Feely, R.A., R.H. Gammon, B.A. Taft, P.E. Pullen, L.S. Waterman, T.J. Conway, J.F. Gendron and D.P. Wisegarver, 1987: Distribution of chemical tracers in the eastern equatorial Pacific during and after the 1982-1983 El-Niño/Southern Oscillation event. Journal of Geophysical Research, 92, 6545-6558.
Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, C. Goyet, D.E. Archer, and T. Takahashi, 1997: Variability of CO2 distributions and sea-air fluxes in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific during the 1991-1994 El Niño. Deep-Sea Research Part Ii-Topical Studies in Oceanography, 44, 1851-1867.
Feely, R.A., C.L. Sabine, R.M. Key, and T.H. Peng, 1999a: CO2 synthesis results: estimating the anthropogenic carbon dioxide sink in the Pacific ocean. US. JGOFS News, 9, 1-5.
Feely, R.A., R. Wanninkhof, T. Takahashi, and P. Tans, 1999b: Influence of El Niño on the equatorial Pacific contribution to atmospheric CO2 accumulation. Nature, 398, 597-601.
Fearnside, P.M., 2000: Global warming and tropical land-use change: Greenhouse gas emissions from biomass burning, decomposition and soils in forest conversion, shifting cultivation and secondary vegetation. Climatic Change, 46, 115-158.
Field, C.B., R.B. Jackson, and H.A. Mooney, 1995a: Stomatal responses to increased CO2: implications from the plant to the global scale. Plant Cell and Environment, 18, 1214-1225.
Field, C.B., J.T. Randerson, and C.M. Malmstrom, 1995b: Global net primary production - combining ecology and remote- sensing. Remote Sensing of Environment, 51, 74-88.
Field, C.B., M.J. Behrenfeld, J.T. Randerson, and P. Falkowski, 1998: Primary production of the biosphere: Integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281, 237-240.
Fischer, H., M. Whalen, J. Smith, D. Mastroianni, and B. Deck, 1999: Ice core records of atmospheric CO2 around the last three glacial terminations. Science, 283, 1712-1714.
Fisher, M.J., I.M. Rao, M.A. Ayarza, C.E. Lascano, J.I. Sanz, R.J. Thomas, and R.R. Vera, 1994: Carbon storage by introduced deep-rooted grasses in the South- American Savannas. Nature, 371, 236-238.
Fog, K., 1988: The effect of added nitrogen on the rate of decomposition of organic -matter. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 63, 433-462.
Foley, J.A., 1994: The sensitivity of the terrestrial biosphere to climatic change: A simulation of the middle Holocene. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 505-525.
Foley, J.A., I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, S. Levis, D. Pollard, S. Sitch, and A. Haxeltine, 1996: An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 603-628.
Foley, N.A., S. Levis, and I.C. Prentice, 1998: Coupling dynamic models of climate and vegetation. Global Change Biology, 4, 561-579.
Fowler, D., J.N. Cape, M. Coyle, C. Flechard, J. Kuylenstierna, K. Hicks, D. Derwent, C. Johnson, and D. Stevenson, 2000: The global exposure of forests to air pollutants. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 116, 5-32.
François, R., M.A. Altabet, E.F. Yu, D.M. Sigman, M.P. Bacon, M. Frank, G. Bohrmann, G. Bareille and L.D. Labeyrie, 1997: Contribution of Southern Ocean surface-water stratification to low atmospheric CO2 concentrations during the last glacial period. Nature, 389, 929-935.
Francey, R.J., and P.P. Tans, 1987: Latitudinal variation in O18 of atmospheric CO2. Nature, 327, 495-497.
Francey, R.J., P.P. Tans, and C.E. Allison, 1995: Changes in oceanic and terrestrial carbon uptake since 1982. Nature, 373, 326-330.
Francey, R., P. Rayner, R. Langenfelds, and C. Trudinger, 1999a: The inversion of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and isotopic composition to constrain large-scale air-sea fluxes. In: 2nd international symposium CO2 in the oceans, Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Study, Tsukuba, Japan, 237-243.
Francey, R.J., C.E. Allison, D.M. Etheridge, C.M. Trudinger, I.G. Enting, M. Leuenberger, R.L. Langenfelds, E. Michel, and L.P. Steele, 1999b: A 1000-year high precision record of delta 13C in atmospheric CO2. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 51, 170-193.
Frankignoulle, M., G. Abril, A. Borges, I. Bourge, C. Canon, B. Delille, E. Libert, and J.-M. Théate, 1998: Carbon dioxide emission from European estuaries. Science, 282, 434-436.
Friedlingstein, P., I. Fung, E. Holland, J. John, G. Brasseur, D. Erickson and D. Schimel, 1995a: On the contribution of CO2 fertilization to the missing biospheric sink. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 541-556.
Friedlingstein, P., K.C. Prentice, I.Y. Fung, J.G. John, and G.P. Brasseur, 1995b: Carbon-biosphere-climate interactions in the last glacial maximum climate. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 100, 7203-7221.
Friedlingstein, P., L. Bopp, P. Ciais, J.-L. Dufresne, L. Fairhead, H. LeTreut, P. Monfray, and J. Orr, 2001: Positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle. Note du Pole de Modelisation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1543-1546.
Fuglestvedt, J.S., and T. Berntsen, 1999: A simple model for scenario studies of changes in global climate. Technical Report # 1999:2, Center for International Climate and Environmental Research, Oslo.
Fung, I.Y., S.K. Meyn, I. Tegen, S.C. Doney, J. John, and J.K.B. Bishop, 2000: Iron supply and demand in the upper ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 281-295.
Gattuso, J.-P., M. Frankignoulle and R. Wollast, 1998: Carbon and carbonate metabolism in coastal aquatic ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 29, 405-434.
Ganeshram, R.S., T.F. Pedersen, S.E. Calvert, and J.W. Murray, 1995: Large changes in oceanic nutrient inventories from glacial to interglacial periods. Nature, 376, 755-758.
Gérard, J.C., B. Nemry, L.M. Francois and P. Warnant, 1999: The interannual change of atmospheric CO2: contribution of subtropical ecosystems? Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 243-246.
Giardina, C.P. and M.G. Ryan, 2000: Evidence that decomposition rates of organic carbon in mineral soil do not vary with temperature. Nature, 404, 858-861.
Gifford, R.M., 1992: Implications of the globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature for the Australian terrestrial carbon budget - integration using a simple-model. Australian Journal of Botany, 40, 527-543.
Gorham, E., 1991: Northern peatlands - role in the carbon-cycle and probable responses to climatic warming. Ecological Applications, 1, 182-195.
Goulden, M.L., J.W. Munger, S.M. Fan, B.C. Daube, and S.C. Wofsy, 1996: Exchange of carbon dioxide by a deciduous forest: Response to interannual climate variability. Science, 271, 1576-1578.
Goulden, M.L., S.C. Wofsy, J.W. Harden, S.E. Trumbore, P.M. Crill, S.T. Gower, T. Fries, B.C. Daube, S.M. Fan, D.J. Sutton, A. Bazzaz, and J.W. Munger, 1998: Sensitivity of boreal forest carbon balance to soil thaw. Science, 279, 214-217.
Goyet, C., and D. Davis, 1997: Estimation of total CO2 concentration throughout the water column. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 44, 859-877.
Gruber, N., 1998: Anthropogenic CO2 in the Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 165-191.
Gruber, N., and J. L. Sarmiento, 1997: Global patterns of marine nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 11, 235-266.
Gruber, N. and C. D. Keeling, 2001: An improved estimate of the isotopic air-sea disequilibrium of CO2: Implications for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2, GRL, vol. 28, pg 555-558.
Gruber, N., J.L. Sarmiento, and T.F. Stocker, 1996: An improved method for detecting anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 809-837.
Gruber, N., C.D. Keeling, R.B. Bacastow, P.R. Guenther, T.J. Lueker, M. Wahlen, H.A.J. Meijer, W.G. Mook, and T.F. Stocker, 1999: Spatiotemporal patterns of carbon-13 in the global surface oceans and the oceanic Suess effect. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 307-335.
Gunderson, P., B.A. Emmett, O.J. Kjønaas, C.J. Koopmans, A. Tietema, 1998: Impact of nitrogen deposition on nitrogen cycling in forests: a synthesis of NITREX data. Forest Ecology and Management, 101, 37-55
Hall, D.O., J.M.O. Scurlock, H.R. Bolhar-Nordenkampfe, P.C. Leegood, and S.P. Long, 1993: Photosynthesis and Production in a Changing Environment: A Field and Laboratory Manual, (eds.)]. Chapman & Hall, London, 464pp.
Hall, D.O., J. House, and I. Scrase, 2000: An overview of biomass energy. In: Industrial Uses of Biomass Energy: the Example of Brazil [Rosillo-Calle, F., H. Rothman and S.V. Bajay (eds.)]. Taylor & Francis, London.
Hansell, D.A., and C.A. Carlson, 1998: Deep-ocean gradients in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon. Nature, 395, 263-266.
Hansell, D.A., and R.A. Feely, 2000: Atmospheric intertropical convergence impacts surface ocean carbon and nitrogen biogeochemistry in the western tropical Pacific. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1013-1016.
Harrison, K.G., 2000: Role of increased marine silica input on paleo-pCO2 levels. Paleoceanography, 15, 292-298.
Harrison, S.P., K.E. Kohfeld, C. Roelandt, and T. Claquin, 2001: The role of dust in climate changes today, at the last glacial maximum and in the future. Earth Science Reviews (in press).
Harvey, L.D.D., 1989: Effect of model structure on the response of terrestrial biosphere models to CO2 and temperature increases. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 3, 137-153.
Harvey, L. D. D., Gregory, J., Hoffert, M., Jain, A., Lal, M., Leemans, R., Raper, S. C. B., Wigley, T. M. L., and de Wolde, J. R., 1997: An introduction to simple climate models used in the IPCC Second Assessment Report. IPCC Technical Paper II, [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, D.J. Griggs and K. Maskell (eds)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. 50 pp.
Haxeltine, A., and I.C. Prentice, 1996: BIOME3: An equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model based on ecophysiological constraints, resource availability, and competition among plant functional types. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 693 - 709.
Hays, J.D., J. Imbrie, and N.J. Shackleton, 1976: Variations in Earths Orbit - Pacemaker of Ice Ages. Science, 194, 1121-1132.
Heimann, M., 2001: Atmospheric Inversion Calculations Performed for IPCC Third Assesment Report Chapter 3 (The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO2), Technical Reports - Max-Planck-Institute für Biogeochemie No. 2.
Heimann, M. and Maier-Reimer, E., 1996: On the relations between the oceanic uptake of CO2 and its carbon isotopes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 89-110.
Heimann, M., and T. Kaminski, 1999: Inverse modelling approaches to infer surface trace gas fluxes from observed atmospheric mixing ratios. In: Approaches to scaling a trace gas fluxes in ecosystems [Bowman A.F. (ed.)]. Elsevier Science, pp. 277-295.
Heimann, M., C.D. Keeling, and I.Y. Fung, 1986: Simulating the atmospheric carbon dioxide distribution with a three dimensional tracer model. In: The Changing Carbon Cycle: A Global Analysis [J.R. Trabalka and D. E. Reichle (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, New York.
Heimann, M., G. Esser, J. Kaduk, D. Kicklighter, G. Kohlmaier, D. McGuire, B. Morre III, C. Prentice, W. Sauf, A. Schloss, U. Wittenberg, and G. Würth, 1997: Interannual variability of CO2 exchange fluxes as simulated by four terrestrial biogeochemical models. In: Fifth International Carbon Dioxide Conference, Cairns, Queensland, Australia.
Heimann, M., G. Esser, A. Haxeltine, J. Kaduk, D.W. Kicklighter, W. Knorr, G.H. Kohlmaier, A.D. McGuire, J. Melillo, B. Moore, R.D. Otto, I.C. Prentice, W. Sauf, A. Schloss, S. Sitch, U. Wittenberg, and G. Wurth, 1998: Evaluation of Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Models Through Simulations of the Seasonal Cycle of Atmospheric CO2 - First Results of a Model Intercomparison Study. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 1-24.
Hewitt, C.D., and J.F.B. Mitchell, 1997: Radiative forcing and response of a GCM to ice age boundary conditions: cloud feedback and climate sensitivity. Climate Dynamics, 13, 821-834.
Hoffert, M.I., A.J. Callegari, and C.T. Hsieh, 1980: The role of deep-sea heat-storage in the secular response to climatic forcing. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres, 85, 6667-6679.
Holfort, J., K.M. Johnson, B. Schneider, G. Siedler, and D.W.R. Wallace, 1998: Meridional transport of dissolved inorganic carbon in the South Atlantic Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 479-499.
Holland, E.A., B.H. Braswell, J.F. Lamarque, A. Townsend, J. Sulzman, J.F. Muller, F. Dentener, G. Brasseur, H. Levy, J.E. Penner, and G.J. Roelofs, 1997: Variations in the predicted spatial distribution of atmospheric nitrogen depostion and their impact on carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 102, 15849-15866.
Holland, E.A., F.J. Dentener, B.H. Braswell, and J.M. Sulzman, 1999: Contemporary and pre-industrial global reactive nitrogen budgets. Biogeochemistry, 46, 7-43.
Hooss, G., R. Voss, K. Hasselmann, E. Meier-Reimer, and F. Joss, 1999: A nonlinear impulse response model of the coupled carbon cycle-ocean-atmosphere climate system. Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg.
Houghton, R.A., 1995: Effects of land-use change, surface temperature, and CO2 concentration on terrestrial stores of carbon. In: Biotic Feedbacks in teh Global Climate System [Woodwell, G.M. (ed.)]. Oxford University Press, London, pp. 333-350.
Houghton, R.A., 1999: The annual net flux of carbon to the atmosphere from cahgnes in land use 1850-1990. Tellus, 51B, 298-313.
Houghton, R.A., 2000: A new estimate of global sources and sinks of carbon from land-use change. EOS, 81, supplement s281.
Houghton, R.A., and J.L. Hackler, 1995: Continental scale estimates of the biotic carbon flux from land cover change: 1850-1980. ORNL/CDIAC-79, NDP-050. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, pp. 144.
Houghton, R.A., and J.L. Hackler, 1999: Emissions of carbon from forestry and land-use change in tropical Asia. Global Change Biology, 5, 481-492.
Houghton, R.A., and K. Ramakrishna, 1999: A review of national emissions inventories from select non-annex I countries: Implications for counting sources and sinks of carbon. Annual Review of Energy Environment, 24, 571-605.
Houghton, R.A., J.L. Hackler, and K.T. Lawrence, 1999: The US carbon budget: Contributions from land-use change. Science, 285, 574-578.
Houghton, R.A., D.L. Skole, C.A. Nobre, J.L. Hackler, K.T. Lawerence and W.H. Chomentowski, 2000: Annual fluxes of carbon from deforestation and regrowth in the Brazilian Amazon. Nature, 403, 301-304.
House, J.I., and D.O. Hall, 2001: Net primary production of savannas and tropical grasslands, In: Terrestrial Global Productivity: Past, Present and Future [Mooney, H., J. Roy and B. Saugier (eds.)], Academic Press, San Diego (in press).
Hungate, B.A., E.A. Holland, R.B. Jackson, F.S. Chapin, H.A. Mooney, and C.B. Field, 1997: The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment. Nature, 388, 576-579.
Hungate, B.A., P. Dijkstra, D.W. Johnson, C.R. Hinkle and B.G. Drake, 1999: Elevated CO2 increases nitrogen fixation and decreases soil nitrogen mineralization in Florida scrub oak. Global Change Biology, 5, 781-789.
Hunt, E.R., S.C. Piper, R. Nemani, C.D. Keeling, R.D. Otto, and S.W. Running, 1996: Global net carbon exchange and intra-annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted by an ecosystem process model and three dimensional atmospheric transport model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 431-456.
Huntingford, C., P.M. Cox, and T.M. Lenton, 2000. Contrasting responses of a simple terrestrial ecosystem model to global change. Ecological Modelling, 134(1), 41-58.
Indermühle, A., T.F. Stocker, F. Joss, H. Fischer, H.J. Smith, M. Wahlen, B. Deck, D. Mastroianni, J. Tschumi, T. Blunier, R. Meyer, and B. Stauffer, 1999: Holocene carbon-cycle dynamics based on CO2 trapped in ice at Taylor Dome, Antarctica. Nature, 398, 121-126.
Indermühle, A., E. Monnin B Stauffer, T. Stocker, and M. Wahlen, 2000. Atmospheric CO2 concentration from 60 to 20 kyr BP from Taylor Dome ice core, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 753-758.
Inoue, H.Y., and Y. Sugimura, 1992: Variations and distributions of CO2 in and over the equatorial pacific during the period from the 1986/88 El-Niño event to the 1988/89 La-Niña event. Tellus Series B, 44, 1-22.
Ishitani, H., T.B. Johansson, and S. Al-Khouli, 1996: Energy Supply Mitigation Options. In: Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Watson, R.T.. M.C. Zinyowera and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 587-648.
IPCC, 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and An Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emissions Scenarios [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesung Lee, B.A. Callander, E. Haites, N. Harris and K. Maskell (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 339.
IPCC, 1996a: Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Houghton, J.T. , L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 1996b: Climate Change 1995. Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, R.H. Moss and D.J. Dokken (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK
IPCC, 1997: Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Reference Manual, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B. Lim, K. Treanton, I. Mamaty, Y. Bonduki, D.J. Griggs and B.A. Callender (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 2000a: Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry. A Special Report of the IPCC. [Watson, R.T., I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo and D.J. Dokken (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
IPCC, 2000b: Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. A Special Report of Working Group III of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. [Nakic´enovic´, N., J. Alcamo, G. Davis, B. de Vries, J. Fenhann, S. Gaffin, K. Gregory, A. Grübler, T. Yong Jung, T. Kram, E.L. La Rovere, L. Michaelis, S. Mori, T. Morita, W. Pepper, H. Pitcher, L. Price, K. Riahi, A. Roehrl, H.-H. Rogner, A. Sankovski, M. Schlesinger, P. Shukla, S. Smith, R. Swart, S. van Rooijen, N. Victor and Z. Dadi (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Ito A. and T. Oikawa, 2000: The large carbon emission from terrestrial ecosystem in 1998: A model simulation, Journal of the Meterological Society of Japan, 78, 103-110
Jain A.K., 2000: The Web Interface of Integrated Science Assessment Model (ISAM). http://frodo.atmos.uiuc.edu/isam.
Jain, A.K., H.S. Kheshgi, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1994: Integrated Science Model for Assessment of Climate Change. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-JC-116526.
Jain, A.K., H.S. Kheshgi, M.I. Hoffert, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1995: Distribution of radiocarbon as a test of global carbon-cycle models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 153-166.
Jarvis, P. and S. Linder, 2000: Botany - Constraints to growth of boreal forests. Nature, 405, 904-905.
Jenkinson, D.S., K. Goulding, and D.S. Powlson, 1999: Nitrogen deposition and carbon sequestration. Nature, 400, 629-629.
Joos, F., M. Bruno, R. Fink, U. Siegenthaler, T.F. Stocker, and C. Le Quéré, 1996: An efficient and accurate representation of complex oceanic and biospheric models of anthropogenic carbon uptake. Tellus Series B, 48, 397-417.
Joos, F., R. Meyer, M. Bruno, and M. Leuenberger, 1999a: The variability in the carbon sinks as reconstructed for the last 1000 years. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1437-1441.
Joos, F., G.-K. Plattner, T.F. Stocker, O. Marchal, and A. Schmittner, 1999b: Global warming and marine carbon cycle feedbacks on future atmospheric CO2. Science, 284, 464-467.
Jones, P.D., Parker, D.E., Osborn, T.J., and Briffa, K.R., 2000: Global and hemispheric temperature anomalies - land and marine instrumental records. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.
Kaminski, T., R. Giering, and M. Heimann, 1996: Sensitivity of the seasonal cycle of CO2 at remote monitoring stations with respect to seasonal surface exchange fluxes determined with the adjoint of an atmospheric transport model. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 21, 457-462.
Kaminski, T., M. Heimann, and R. Giering, 1999: A coarse grid three-dimensional global inverse model of the atmospheric transport - 1. Adjoint model and Jacobian matrix. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 104, 18535-18553.
Karl, D., R. Letelier, L. Tupas, J. Dore, J. Christian, and D. Hebel, 1997: The role of nitrogen fixation in biogeochemical cycling in the subtropical North Pacific Ocean. Nature, 388, 533-538.
Keeling, C.D., and R. Revelle, 1985: Effects of El-Niño southern oscillation on the atmospheric content of carbon-dioxide. Meteoritics, 20, 437-450.
Keeling, C.D., and T.P. Whorf, 2000: Atmospheric CO2 records from sites in the SIO air sampling network. In: Trends: A compendium of data on global change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA.
Keeling, C.D., and Piper S.C., 2000: Interannual variations of exchanges of atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000: III. Simulated sources and sinks. Scripps Institution of Oceanography Reference No. 00-14, University of California, San Diego, 68 pp.
Keeling, C.D., W.G. Mook, and P.P. Tans, 1979: Recent trends in the 13C-12C ratio of atmospheric carbon- dioxide. Nature, 277, 121-123.
Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, and P.P. Tans, 1980: Predicted shift in the 13C-12C ratio of atmospheric carbon-dioxide. Geophys. Res. Lett., 7, 505-508.
Keeling, C.D., R.B. Bacastow, A.l. Carter, S.C. Piper, T.P. Whorf, M. Heimann, W.G. Mook, and H. Roeloffzen, 1989: A three dimensional model of atmospheric CO2 transport based on observed winds: 1. Analysis of observational data. In: Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas [Peterson D.H. (ed.)]. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 165-236.
Keeling, C.D., T.P. Whorf, M. Wahlen, and J. Vanderplicht, 1995: Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980. Nature, 375, 666-670.
Keeling, C.D., J.F.S. Chin, and T.P. Whorf, 1996a: Increased activity of northern vegetation inferred from atmospheric CO2 measurements. Nature, 382, 146-149.
Keeling, R.F., 1988: Measuring correlations between atmospheric oxygen and carbon- dioxide mole fractions - a preliminary-study in urban air. Journal Of Atmospheric Chemistry, 7, 153-176.
Keeling, R.F., and S.R. Shertz, 1992: Seasonal and interannual variations in atmospheric oxygen and implications for the global carbon cycle. Nature, 358, 723-727.
Keeling, R.F., and T.H. Peng, 1995: Transport of Heat, CO2 and O2 by the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B, 348, 133-142.
Keeling, R.F., R.P. Najjar, and M.L. Bender, 1993: What atmospheric oxygen measurements can tell us about the global carbon-cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 37-67.
Keeling, R.F., S.C. Piper, and M. Heimann, 1996b: Global and hemispheric CO2 sinks deduced from changes in atmospheric O2 concentration. Nature, 381, 218-221.
Kheshgi, H.S., A.K. Jain, and D.J. Wuebbles, 1996: Accounting for the missing carbon sink with the CO2 fertilization effect. Climatic Change, 33, 31-62.
Kicklighter, D.W., M. Bruno, S. Dönges, G. Esser, M. Heimann, J. Helfrich, F. Ift, F. Joos, J. Kadku, G.H. Kohlmaier, A.D. McGuire, J.M. Melillo, R. Meyer, B. Moore III, A. Nadler, I.C. Prentice, W. Sauf, A.L. Schloss, S. Sitch, U. Wittenberg, and G. Würth, 1999: A first order analysis of the potential of CO2 fertilization to affect the global carbon budget: A comparison of four terrestrial biosphere models. Tellus, 51B, 343-366.
Kindermann, J., G. Wurth, G.H. Kohlmaier, and F.W. Badeck, 1996: Interannual variation of carbon exchange fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 737-755.
Klepper, O., and B.J. De Haan, 1995: A sensitivity study of the effect of global change on ocean carbon uptake. Tellus Series B, 47, 490-500.
Kleypas, J.A., 1997: Modeled estimates of global reef habitat and carbonate production since the last glacial maximum. Paleoceanography, 12, 533-545.
Kleypas, J.A., R.W. Buddemeier, D. Archer, J.P. Gattuso, C. Langdon, and B.N. Opdyke, 1999: Geochemical consequences of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide on coral reefs. Science, 284, 118-120.
Knorr, W., 2000: Annual and interannual CO2 exchanges of the terrestrial biosphere: process-based simulations and uncertainties. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 9, 225-252.
Knorr, W., and M. Heimann, 1995: Impact of drought stress and other factors on seasonal land biosphere CO2 exchange studied through an atmospheric tracer transport model. Tellus, 47B, 471-489.
Knorr, W. and M. Heimann, 2001a: Uncertainties in global terrestrial biosphere modeling, Part I: a comprehensive sensitivity analysis with a new photosynthesis and energy balance scheme. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(1), 207-225.
Knorr, W., and M. Heimann, 2001b: Uncertainties in global terrestrial biosphere modeling, Part II: global constraints for a process-based vegetation model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(1), 227-246.
Knox, F. and M.B. McElroy, 1984: Changes in atmospheric CO2: influence of the marine biota at high latitude. Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 4629-4637.
Koch, G.W., and H.A. Mooney, 1996: Response of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated CO2: a synthesis and summary. In: Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems [Koch, G.W. and H.A. Mooney (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 415-429.
Körner, C., 2000: Biosphere responses to CO2-enrichment. Ecological Applications, 10, 1590-1619.
Kucharik, C.J., J.A. Foley, C. Delire, V.A. Fisher, M.T. Coe, J.D. Lenters, C. Young-Molling, N. Ramankutty, J.M. Norman and S.T. Gower, 2000: Testing the performance of a Dynamic Global Ecosystem Model: Water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 795-825.
Kuhlbusch, T.A.J., M.O. Andeae, H. Cahier, J.G. Goldammer, J.P. Lacaux, R. Shea, and P.J. Crutzen, 1996: Black carbon formation by savanna fires: Measurements and implications for the global carbon cycle. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 23651-23665.
Kumar, N., R.F. Anderson, R.A. Mortlock, P.N. Froelich, P. Kubik, B. Dittrich-Hannen, and M. Suter, 1995: Increased biological productivity and export production in the glacial Southern Ocean. Nature, 378, 675-680.
Langenfelds, R.L., R.J. Francey, and L.P. Steele, 1999: Partitioning of the global fossil CO2 sink using a 19-year trend in atmospheric O2. Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 1897-1900.
Langdon, C., T. Takahashi, C. Sweeney, D. Chipman, J. Goddard, F. Marubini, H. Aceves, H. Barnett and M. Atkinson, 2000: Effect of calcium carbonate saturation state on the calcification rate of an experimental coral reef. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 639-654.
Law, R.M., P.J. Rayner, A.S. Denning, D. Erickson, I.Y. Fung, M. Heimann, S.C. Piper, M. Ramonet, S. Taguchi, J.A. Taylor, C.M. Trudinger, and I.G. Watterson, 1996: Variations in modeled atmospheric transport of carbon dioxide and the consequences for CO2 inversions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 783-796.
Laws, E.A., P.G. Falkowski, W.O. Smith Jr., H. Ducklow, and J.J. McCarthy, 2000: Temperature effects on export production in the open ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14(4), 1231-1246.
Le Quéré, C., J. C. Orr, P. Monfray, O. Aumont, and G. Madec, 2000: Interannual variability of the oceanic sink of CO2 from 1979 through 1997. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14(4), 1247-1265.
Leemans, R., 1990: Global data sets collected and compiled by the Biosphere Project, Working Paper, International Institute for Applied Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
Leemans, R., A. vanAmstel, C. Battjes, E. Kreileman, and S. Toet, 1996: The land cover and carbon cycle consequences of large-scale utilizations of biomass as an energy source. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions, 6, 335-357.
Lefèvre, N., and A.J. Watson, 1999: Modeling the geochemical cycle of iron in the oceans and its impact on atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 727-736.
Leggett, J.A., W.J. Pepper, and R.J. Swart, 1992: Emissions scenarios for the IPCC: an update. In: Climate Change 1992. The Supplementary Report to the IPCC Scientific assessment. [Houghton, J.T., B.A. Callander and S.K. Varney (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 69-95.
Levitus, S., J.I. Antonov, T.P. Boyer, and C. Stephens, 2000: Warming of the world ocean. Science, 287, 2225-2229.
Liss, P.S., and L. Merlivat, 1986: Air-sea gas exchange: Introduction and synthesis. In: The Role of Air-Sea Exchange in Geochemical Cycling [Buat-Ménard, P. (ed.)]. D. Reidel, Hingham, Massachusetts, 113-127.
Lloyd, J., 1999: The CO2 dependence of photosynthesis, plant growth responses to elevated CO2 concentrations and their interaction with soil nutrient status, II. Temperate and boreal forest productivity and the combined effects of increasing CO2 concentrations and increased nitrogen deposition at a global scale. Functional Ecology, 13, 439-459.
Lloyd, J., and G.D. Farquhar, 1994: 13C discrimination during CO2 assimilation by the terrestrial biosphere. Oecologia, 99, 201-215.
Lloyd, J., and J.A. Taylor, 1994: On the temperature-dependence of soil respiration. Functinal Ecolology, 8, 315-323.
Lloyd, J., and G.D. Farquhar, 1996: The CO2 dependence of photosynthesis, plant growth responses to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and their interaction with soil nutrient status. I. General principles and forest ecosystems. Functional Ecology, 10, 4-32.
Longhurst, A., S. Sathyendranath, T. Platt, and C. Caverhill, 1995: An Estimate of global primary production in the ocean from satellite radiometer data. Journal of Plankton Research, 17, 1245-1271.
Lorius, C., and H. Oeschger, 1994: Palaeo-perspectives - reducing uncertainties in global change. Ambio, 23, 30-36.
Lugo, A.E. and S. Brown, 1993: Management of tropical soils as sinks or sources of atmospheric carbon. Plant and Soil, 149, 27-41.
Luo, Y.Q., J. Reynolds, and Y.P. Wang, 1999: A search for predictive understanding of plant responses to elevated [CO2]. Global Change Biology, 5, 143-156.
Mahowald, N., K.E. Kohfeld, M. Hansson, Y. Balkanski, S.P. Harrison, I.C. Prentice, H. Rodhe, and M. Schulz, 1999: Dust sources and deposition during the Last Glacial Maximum and current climate: a comparison of model results with paleodata from ice cores and marine sediments. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 15,895-16,436.
Maier-Reimer, E., 1993: Geochemical cycles in an ocean general-circulation model - preindustrial tracer distributions. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 645-677.
Maier-Reimer, E., and K. Hasselmann, 1987: Transport and storage of CO2 in the ocean - An inorganic ocean-circulation carbon cycle model. Climate Dynamics, 2, 63-90.
Maier-Reimer, E., U. Mikolajewicz, and A. Winguth, 1996: Future ocean uptake of CO2 - Interaction between ocean circulation and biology. Climate Dynamics, 12, 711-721.
Malhi, Y., A.D. Nobre, J. Grace, B. Kruijt, M.G.P. Pereira, A. Culf, S. Scott, 1998: Carbon dioxide transfer over a Central Amazonian rain forest. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 103, 31593-31612.
Manning, A.C., 2001. Temporal variability of atmospheric oxygen from both continuous measurements and a flask sampling network: Tools for studying the global carbon cycle. Ph. D. thesis, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, U.S.A., 190 pp.
Manning, M.R., 1992: Seasonal cycles in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In: The Global Carbon Cycle: Proceedings of the NATO. [M. Heimann, (ed.)]. Advanced Study Institute I15, Il Ciocco, September 8-20, 1991, Springer Verlag, Berlin.
Marchal, O., T.F. Stocker, and F. Joos, 1998: A latitude-depth, circulation biogeochemical ocean model for paleoclimate studies - development and sensitivities. Tellus, 50B, 290-316.
Marland, G., R.J. Andres, and T.A. Boden, 1994: Global, regional, and national CO2 emissions. In: Trends 93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change [T. A. Boden, D. P. Kaiser, R. J. Sepanski, and F. W. Stoss (eds.)], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, ORNL/CDIAC-65, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA, 505-584.
Marland, G., R.J. Andres, T.A. Boden, C. Hohnston, and A. Brenkert, 1999: Global, Regional, and National CO2 Emission Estimates from Fossil Fuel Burning, Cement Production, and Gas Flaring: 1751-1996. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA.
Marland, G., T.A. Boden, and R.J. Andres, 2000: Global, regional, and national CO2 emissions. In: Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., USA.
Martin, J., 1990: Glacial-interglacial CO2 change: the iron hypothesis. Paleoceanography, 5, 1-13.
Martin, J.H., S.E. Fitzwater, and R.M. Gordon, 1990: Iron deficiency limits phytoplankton growth in Antarctic waters. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 4, 5-12.
Masle, J. 2000: The effects of elevated CO2 concentrations on cell division rates, growth patterns, and blade anatomy in young wheat plants are modulated by factors related to leaf position, vernalization, and genotype. Plant Physiology, 122, 1399-1415.
Matear, R.J., and A.C. Hirst, 1999: Climate change feedback on the future oceanic CO2 uptake. Tellus Series B, 51, 722-733.
Matson, P.A., W.H. McDowell, A.R. Townsend and P.M. Vitousek, 1999: The globalization of N deposition: ecosystem consequences in tropical environments. Biogeochemistry, 46, 67-83.
Matthews, E., 1983: Global vegetation and land-use - new high-resolution data-bases for climate studies. Journal of Climate and Applied Meteorology, 22, 474-487.
McElroy, M.B., 1983: Marine biological-controls on atmospheric CO2 and climate. Nature, 302, 328-329.
McGillicuddy, D.J., and A.R. Robinson, 1997: Eddy-induced nutrient supply and new production in the Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part I-Oceanographic Research Papers, 44, 1427-1450.
McGuire, A.D., J.M. Melillo, and L.A. Joyce, 1995: The role of nitrogen in the response of forest net primary production to elevated atmospheric carbon-dioxide. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 26, 473-503.
McGuire, A.D., S. Sitch, J.S. Clein, R. Dargaville, G. Esser, J. Foley, M. Heimann, F. Joos, J. Kaplan, D.W. Kicklighter, R.A. Meier, J.M. Melillo, B. Moore III, I.C. Prentice, N. Ramankutty, T. Reichenau, A. Schloss, H. Tian, L.J. Williams, U. Wittenberg, 2001 Carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere in the twentieth century: Analyses of CO2, climate and land-use effects with four process-based ecosystem models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(1), 183-206.
Mclaughlin, S., and Downing, D.J., 1995: Interactive effects of ambient ozone and climate measured on growth of mature forest trees. Nature, 374, 252-254.
Mclaughlin, S., and Percy, K., 2000: Forest health in North America: some perspectives on actual and potential roles of climate and air pollution. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 116, 151-197.
Melillo, J.M., and J.R. Gosz, 1983: Interactions of biogeochemical cycles in forest ecosystems. In: The major biogeochemical cycles and their interactions [Bolin, B. and R.B. Cook (eds.)]. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 177-222.
Melillo, J.M., A.D. McGuire, D.W. Kicklighter, B.M. III, C.J. Vörösmarty and A.L. Schloss, 1993: Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature, 363, 234-240.
Melillo, J.M., I.C. Prentice, G.D. Farquhar, E.-D. Schulze, and O.E. Sala, 1996: Terrestrial biotic response to environmental change and feedbacks to climate, In:Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change., [J.T. Houghton, L.G.M. Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell (eds.)]. University Press, Cambridge, pp. 449-481.
Menzel, A., and P. Fabian, 1999: Growing season extended in Europe. Nature, 397, 659.
Meybeck, M., 1982: Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus transport by world rivers. American Journal of Science, 282, 401-450.
Meybeck, M., 1993: Riverine transport of atmospheric carbon - sources, global typology and budget. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 70, 443-463
Milliman, J.D., 1993: Production and accumulation of calcium-carbonate in the ocean - budget of a nonsteady state. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 927-957.
Minkkinen, K., and J. Laine, 1998: Long-term effect of forest drainage on the peat carbon stores of pine mires in Finland. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 28, 1267-1275.
Mitchell, J.F.B., T.C. Johns, J.M. Gregory, and S.F.B. Tett, 1995: Climate response to increasing levels of greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols. Nature, 376, 501-504.
Mook, W.G., M. Koopmans, A.F. Carter, and C.D. Keeling, 1983: Seasonal, latitudinal, and secular variations in the abundance and isotopic-ratios of atmospheric carbon-dioxide. 1. Results from land stations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres, 88, 915-933.
Mooney, H.A., J. Canadell, F.S. Chapin III, J.R. Ehleringer, Ch. Körner, R.E. McMurtrie, W.J. Parton, L.F. Pitelka, and E.D. Schulze, 1999: Ecosystem physiology responses to global change. In: Implications of Global Change for Natural and Managed Ecosystems. A Synthesis of GCTE and Related Research. IGBP Book Series No. 4, [Walker, B.H., W.L. Steffen, J. Canadell and J.S.I. Ingram (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 141-189.
Mooney, H., J. Roy and B. Saugier (eds.) 2001. Terrestrial Global Productivity: Past, Present and Future, Academic Press, San Diego (in press).
Morita, T., J. Robinson, A. Adegbulugbe, J. Alcamo, E. Lebre La Rovere, N. Nakic´enovic´, H. Pitcher, P. Raskin, V. Sokolov, B. de Vries, D. Zhou, 2001. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios and implications. In: Climate Change: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [O. Davidson, B. Metz and R. Swart (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, in press.
Murnane, R.J., J.L. Sarmiento, and C. Le Quéré, 1999: Spatial distribution of air-sea CO2 fluxes and the interhemispheric transport of carbon by the oceans. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 287-305.
Myneni, R.B., C.D. Keeling, C.J. Tucker, G. Asrar, and R.R. Nemani, 1997: Increased plant growth in the northern high latitudes from 1981 to 1991. Nature, 386, 698-702.
Nadelhoffer, K.J., B.A. Emmett, and P. Gundersen, 1999: Nitrogen deposition makes a minor contribution to carbon sequestration in temperate forests. Nature, 398, 145-148.
Neftel, A., H. Friedli, E. Moor, H. Lötscher, H. Oeschger, U. Siegenthaler, and B. Stauffer, 1994: Historical CO2 record from the Siple station ice core. In: Trends ‘93: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. [T.A. Boden, D.P. Kaiser, R.J. Sepanski, and F.W. Stoss (eds.)], Carbon Dioxide Inf. Anal. Cent., Oak Ridge., pp. 11-14.
Neilson, R.P., and D. Marks, 1994: A global perspective of regional vegetation and hydrologic sensitivities from climatic change. Journal of Vegetation Science, 5, 715-730.
Nemry, B., L. Francois, J.C. Gerard, A. Bondeau, and M. Heimann, 1999: Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP): analysis of the seasonal atmospheric CO2 signal. Global Change Biology, 5, 65-76.
Norby, R.J. and M.F. Cotrufo, 1988: Global change - A question of litter quality. Nature, 396, 17-18.
Norby, R.J., S.D. Wullschleger, C.A. Gunderson, D.W. Johnson, and R. Ceulemans, 1999: Tree responses to rising CO2 in field experiments: implications for the future forest. Plant Cell and Environment, 22, 683-714.
Oechel, W.C., S.J. Hastings, G. Vourlitis, M. Jenkins, G. Riechers, and N. Grulke, 1993: Recent change of arctic tundra ecosystems from a net carbon- dioxide sink to a source. Nature, 361, 520-523.
Oechel, W.C., G.L. Vourlitis, S.J. Hastings, R.C. Zulueta, L. Hinzman, and D. Kane, 2000: Acclimation of ecosystem CO2 exchange in the Alaskan Arctic in response to decadal climate warming. Nature, 406, 978-981.
Ollinger, S.V., J.S. Aber, and P.B. Reich, 1997: Simulating ozone effects on forest productivity: interactions among leaf-, canopy-, and stand-level processes. Ecological Applications, 7, 1237-1251.
Olson, J.S., J.A. Watts, and L.J. Allison, 1983: Carbon in Live Vegetation of Major World Ecosystems. Oak Ridge, Tennessee:Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ORNL-5862.
Ono, T., S. Watanabe, K. Okuda, and M. Fukasawa, 1998: Distribution of total carbonate and related properties in the North Pacific along 30 degrees N. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 103, 30873-30883.
Opdyke, B.N., and J.C.G. Walker, 1992: Return of the coral-reef hypothesis - basin to shelf partitioning of CaCO3 and Its Effect On Atmospheric CO2. Geology, 20, 733-736.
Orr, J.C., and J.-C. Dutay, 1999: OCMIP mid-project workshop. Research GAIM Newsletter, 3, 4-5.
Orr, J., E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, P. Monfray, J. L. Sarmiento, J. R. Toggweiler, N. K. Taylor, J. Palmer, N. Gruber, C. L. Sabine, C. Le Quéré, R. M. Key, and J. Boutin, 2001: Estimates of anthropogenic carbon uptake from four 3-D global ocean models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15, 43-60.
Oschlies, A., and V. Garçon, 1998: Eddy-induced enhancement of primary production in a model of the north Atlantic Ocean. Nature, 394, 266-269.
Overpeck, J., K. Hughen, D. Hardy, R. Bradley, R. Case, M. Douglas, B. Finney, K. Gajewski, G. Jacoby, A. Jennings, S. Lamoureux, A. Lasca, G. MacDonald, J. Moore, M. Retelle, S. Smith, A. Wolfe, and G. Zielinski, 1997: Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries. Science, 278, 1251-1256.
Owensby, C.E., P.I. Coyne, and J.M. Ham, 1993: Biomass production in a tallgrass prairie ecosystem exposed to ambient and elevated CO2. Ecological Applications, 3, 644-653.
Pagani, M., M.A. Arthur and K.H. Freeman, 1999a: Miocene evolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Paleoceanography, 14, 273-292.
Pagani, M., K. Freeman, and M.A. Arthur, 1999b: Late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and the expansion of C4 grasses. Science, 285, 876-879.
Pahlow, M., and U. Riebesell, 2000: Temporal trends in deep ocean Redfield ratios. Science, 287, 831-833.
Pearson, P.N. and M.R. Palmer, 1999: Middle eocene seawater pH and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Science, 284, 1824-1826.
Pearson, P.N. and M.R. Palmer, 2000: Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years. Nature, 406, 695-699.
Peng, C.H., J. Guiot, and E.V. Campo, 1998: Past and future carbon balance of European ecosystems from pollen data and climatic models simulations. Global Planetary Change, 18, 189-200.
Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Bender, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delaygue, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pepin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard, 1999: Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature, 399, 429-436.
Peybernès, N., E. Michel, J.-M. Barnola, M. Delmotte, J. Chappellaz, and D. Raynaud, 2000: Information on carbon cycle during the last 8,000 years deduced from CO2, 13CO2 and CH4 profiles obtained on a Vostok Ice core. Presented at: EGS, Nice, France, 25-26 April 2000.
Phillips, O.L., Y. Malhi, N. Higuchi, W.F. Laurance, P.V. Nunez, R.M. Vasquez, S.G. Laurance, L.V. Ferreira, M. Stern, S. Brown and J. Grace, 1998: Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: Evidence from long-term plots. Science, 282, 439-442.
Polley, H.W., H.B. Johnson, H.S. Mayeux, and C.R. Tischler, 1996: Are some of the recent changes in grassland communities a response to rising CO2 concentrations? In: Carbon Dioxide, Populations, and Communities [Körner, C. and F.A. Bazzaz (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 177-195.
Prentice, I.C., M. Heimann, and S. Sitch, 2000: The carbon balance of the terrestrial biosphere: Ecosystem models and atmospheric observations. Ecological Applications, 10, 1553-1573.
Pritchard, S.G., H.H. Rogers, S.A. Prior, and C.M. Peterson, 1999: Elevated CO2 and plant structure: a review. Global Change Biology, 5, 807-837.
Poole, I., J.D.B. Weyers, T. Lawson and J.A. Raven, 1996: Variations in stomatal density and index: Implications for palaeoclimatic reconstructions. Plant Cell and Environment, 19, 705-712.
Quay, P.D., B. Tilbrook, C.S. Won, 1992: Oceanic uptake of fossil fuel CO2: Carbon-13 evidence. Science, 256, 74-79.
Raich, J.W., E.B. Rastetter, J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, P.A. Steudler, B.J. Peterson, A.L. Grace, B. Moore and C.J. Vorosmarty, 1991: Potential net primary productivity in South-America - application of a global-model. Ecological Applications, 1, 399-429.
Raich, J.W., and W.H. Schlesinger, 1992: The global carbon-dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 44, 81-99
Ramankutty, N., and J.A. Foley, 2000: Estimating historical changes in global land cover: Croplands from 1700 to 1992. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 997-1027.
Randerson, J.T., C.B. Field, I.Y. Fung, and P.P. Tans, 1999: Increases in early season ecosystem uptake explain recent changes in the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 at high northern latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2765-2768.
Rayner, P.J., I.G. Enting, R.J. Francey, and R. Langenfelds, 1999a: Reconstructing the recent carbon cycle from atmospheric CO2, 13C and O2/N2 observations. Tellus, 51B, 213-232.
Rayner, P.J., R.M. Law, and R. Dargaville, 1999b: The relationship between tropical CO2 fluxes and the El Niño - Southern Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 493-496.
Redfield, A.C., B.H. Ketchum, and F.A. Richards, 1963: The influence of organisms on the composition of seawater. In: The Sea [Hill, M.N. (ed.)]. Wiley, New York, NY, pp. 26-77.
Rickaby, R.E.M., and H. Elderfield, 1999: Planktonic foraminiferal Cd/Ca: Paleonutrients or paleotemperature? Paleoceanography, 14, 293-303.
Riebesell, U., D.A. Wolf-Gladrow, and V. Smetacek, 1993: Carbon-dioxide limitation of marine-phytoplankton growth-rates. Nature, 361, 249-251.
Riebesell, U., I. Zondervan, B. Rost, P.D. Tortell, R.E. Zeebe, and F.M. Morel, 2000: Reduced calcification of marine phytoplankton in response to increased atmospheric CO2. Nature, 407, 364-367.
Robitaille, D.Y., and A.J. Weaver, 1995: Validation of sub-grid-scale mixing schemes using CFCs in a global ocean model. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 2917-2920.
Ruimy, A., B. Saugier, and G. Dedieu, 1994: Methodology for the estimation of terrestrial net primary production from remotely sensed data. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmosphere, 99, 5263-5283.
Rundgren, M., and D. Beerling, 1999: A Holocene CO2 record from the stomatal index of subfossil Salix herbacea L. leaves from northern Sweden. Holocene, 9, 509-513.
Sabine, C.L., D.W.R. Wallace, and F.J. Millero, 1997: Survey of CO2 in the Oceans reveals clues about global carbon cycle. EOS, Transaction of the American Geophysical Union, 78, 54-55.
Sabine, C.L., R.M. Key, K.M. Johnson, F.J. Millero, A. Poisson, J.L. Sarmiento, D.W.R. Wallace, and C.D. Winn, 1999: Anthropogenic CO2 inventory of the Indian Ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 179-198.
Sampson, R.N. and R.J. Scholes, 2000: Additional Human-Induced Activities-Article 3.4. In: Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry [Watson, R.T., I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo and D.J. Dokken (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 181-282.
Sanyal, A., N.G. Hemming, G.N. Hanson, and W.S. Broecker, 1995: Evidence for a higher pH in the glacial ocean from boron isotopes in foraminifera. Nature, 373, 234-236.
Sarmiento, J.L., and J.R. Toggweiler, 1984: A new model for the role of the oceans in determining atmospheric pCO2. Nature, 308, 621-624.
SAR, see IPCC (1996a).
Sarmiento, J.L., J.C. Orr, and U. Siegenthaler, 1992: A perturbation simulation of CO2 uptake in an ocean general- circulation model. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97, 3621-3645.
Sarmiento, J.L., and E.T. Sundquist, 1992: Revised budget for the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon- dioxide. Nature, 356, 589-593.
Sarmiento, J.L., and C. Le Quéré, 1996: Oceanic carbon dioxide uptake in a model of century-scale global warming. Science, 274, 1346-1350.
Sarmiento, J.L., T.M.C. Hughes, R.J. Stouffer, and S. Manabe, 1998: Simulated response of the ocean carbon cycle to anthropogenic climate warming. Nature, 393, 245-249.
Sarmiento, J.L., P. Monfray, E. Maier-Reimer, O. Aumont, R. Murnane, and J. C. Orr, 2000: Sea-air CO2 fluxes and carbon transport: a comparison of three ocean general circulation models. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14(4), 1267-1281.
Saugier, B., and J. Roy, 2001: Estimations of global terrestrial productivity: converging towards a single number? In: Global terrestrial productivity: past, present and future [Roy, J., B. Saugier and H.A. Mooney (eds.)]. Academic Press, (in press).
Saxe, H., D.S. Ellsworth, and J. Heath, 1998: Tree and forest functioning in an enriched CO2 atmosphere. New Phytologist, 139, 395-436.
Schimel, J.P., and F.S. Chapin, 1996: Tundra plant uptake of amino acid and NH4+ nitrogen in situ: Plants compete well for amino acid N. Ecology, 77, 2142-2147.
Schimel, D.S., B.H. Braswell, E.A. Holland, R. McKeown, D.S. Ojima, T.H. Painter, W.J. Parton, and A.R. Townsend, 1994: Climatic, edaphic and biotic controls over carbon and turnover of carbon in soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 279-293.
Schimel, D., I.G. Enting, M. Heimann, T.M.L. Wigley, D. Raynaud, D. Alves, and U. Siegenthaler, 1995: CO2 and the carbon cycle. In: Climate Change 1994: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change and an Evaluation of the IPCC IS92 Emission Scenarios [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, J. Bruce, Hoesung Lee, B.A. Callander, E. Haites, E. Harris, K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 35-71.
Schimel, D., D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heimann, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, and T. Wigley, 1996: CO2 and the carbon cycle. In: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change: Contribution of WGI to the Second Assessment Report of the IPCC [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 65-86.
Schimel, D., M. Grubb, F. Joos, R. Kaufmann, R. Moss, W. Ogana, R. Richels, and T.M.L. Wigley, 1997: Stabilization of Atmospheric Greenhouse Gases: Physical, Biological and Socio-economic Implications — IPCC Technical Paper 3 [Houghton, J.T.,, L.G. Meira Filho, D.J. Griggs and K. Maskell (eds)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Bracknell, UK , 53 pp.
Schlamadinger, B. and T. Karjalainen, 2000: Afforestation, Reforestation, and Deforestation (ARD) Activites. In: Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry [Watson, R.T., I.R. Noble, B. Bolin, N.H. Ravindranath, D.J. Verardo and D.J. Dokken (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 127-181.
Schlesinger, W.H., 1990: Evidence from chronosequence studies for a low carbon-storage potential of soils. Nature, 348, 233-234.
Schlesinger, W.H., 2000: Carbon sequestration in soils. Science, 284, 2095.
Schlesinger, W.H. and J.M. Melack, 1981: Transport of organic-carbon in the worlds rivers. Tellus, 33, 172-187
Schlesinger, W.H., and J.A. Andrews, 2000: Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle. Biogeochemistry, 48, 7-20.
Schlitzer, R. 2000: Applying the adjoint method for biogeochemical modeling: export of particulate organic matter in the world ocean. In: Inverse methods in global biogeochemical cycles [Kasibhatla, P., M. Heimann, P. Rayner, N. Mahowald, R.G. Prinn, and D.E. Hartley (eds)], Geophysical Monograph Series, 114, 107-124.
Scholes, R.J., and S.R. Archer, 1997: Tree-grass interactions in savannas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 28, 517-544.
Scholes, M., and M.O. Andreae, 2000: Biogenic and pyrogenic emissions from Africa and their impact on the global atmosphere. Ambio, 29, 23-29.
Scholes, R.J., E.D. Schulze, L.F. Pitelka, and D.O. Hall, 1999: Biogeochemistry of terrestrial ecosystems. In: The terrestrial biosphere and global change [Walker B., Steffen W., Canadell J. and Ingram J. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press., Cambridge, pp. 271-303.
Schulze, E.D., 2000: Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European Forest Ecosystems. Ecological Studies Vol. 142., Springer Verlag.
Schulze, E.D., and M. Heimann, 1998: Carbon and water exchange of terrestrial ecosystems. In: Asian change in the context of global change [Galloway, J.N. and J. Melillo (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Schulze, E.D., W. Devries, and M. Hauhs, 1989: Critical loads for nitrogen deposition on forest ecosystems. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 48, 451-456.
Schulze, E.D., J. Lloyd, F.M. Kelliher, C. Wirth, C. Rebmann, B. Luhker, M. Mund, A. Knohl, I.M. Milyukova, W. Schulze, W. Ziegler, A.B. Varlagin, A.F. Sogachev, R. Valentini, S. Dore, S. Grigoriev, O. Kolle, M.I. Panfyorov, N. Tchebakova, and N.N. Vygodskaya, 1999: Productivity of forests in the Eurosiberian boreal region and their potential to act as a carbon sink - a synthesis. Global Change Biology, 5, 703-722.
Semenov, S.M., I.M. Kounina, and B.A. Koukhta, 1998: An ecological analysis of anthropogenic changes in ground-level concentrations of O3, SO2, and CO2 in Europe. Doklady Biological Sciences, 361, 344-347.
Semenov, S.M., I.M. Kounina, and B.A. Koukhta, 1999: Tropospheric ozone and plant growth in Europe., Publishing Centre, ‘Meteorology and Hydrology', Moscow, 208 pp.
Shackleton, N.J., 1977: Carbon-13 in Uvigerina: Tropical rainforest history and the equatorial Pacific carbonate dissolution cycles. In: The Fate of Fossil Fuel CO2 in the Oceans [Anderson, N.R. and A. Malahoff (eds.)], 401-427.
Shackleton, N.J., 2000: The 100,000-year ice-age cycle identified and found to lag temperatrue, carb on dioxide, and orbital eccentricity. Science, 289, 1897-1902.
Shaffer, G., 1993: Effects of the marine carbon biota on global carbon cycling. In: The Global Carbon Cycle [Heimann, M. (ed.)]. I 15, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 431-455.
Siegenthaler, U., 1990: Biogeochemical Cycles - El-Niño and Atmospheric CO2. Nature, 345, 295-296.
Siegenthaler, U. and H. Oeschger, 1978: Predicting future atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels. Science, 199, 388-395
Siegenthaler, U., and T. Wenk, 1984: Rapid atmospheric CO2 variations and ocean circulation. Nature, 308, 624-627.
Siegenthaler, U. and F. Joos, 1992: Use of a simple-model for studying oceanic tracer distributions and the global carbon-cycle. Tellus Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 44, 186-207.
Siegenthaler, U., H. Friedli, H. Loetscher, E. Moor, A. Neftel, H. Oeschger and B. Stauffer, 1988: Stable-isotope ratios and concentration of CO2 in air from polar ice cores. Annals of Glaciology, 10, 1-6.
Sigman, D.M., D.C. McCorkle, and W.R. Martin, 1998: The calcite lysocline as a constraint on glacial/interglacial low-latitude production changes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 409-427.
Sitch, S., 2000: The role of vegetation dynamics in the control of atmospheric CO2 content. PhD thesis, University of Lund, Sweden, 213 pp.
Six, K.D., and E. Maier-Reimer, 1996: Effects of plankton dynamics on seasonal carbon fluxes in an ocean general circulation model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 559-583.
Skole, D. and C. Tucker, 1993: Tropical deforestation and habitat fragmentation in the Amazon - satellite data from 1978 to 1988. Science, 260, 1905-1910.
Smethie, W.M., T. Takahashi, and D.W. Chipman, 1985: Gas-exchange and CO2 flux in the tropical atlantic-ocean determined from 222Rn and pCO2 measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 90, 7005-7022.
Smith, H.J., H. Fischer, M. Wahlen, D. Mastroianni, and B. Deck, 1999: Dual modes of the carbon cycle since the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature, 400, 248-250.
Smith, S.V., and J.T. Hollibaugh, 1993: Coastal metabolism and the oceanic organic-carbon balance. Reviews of Geophysics, 31, 75-89.
Sonnerup, R. E., Quay P. D., McNichol A. P., Bullister J. L., Westby T. A., and Anderson H. L., 1999: Reconstructing the oceanic C-13 Suess effect. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 857-872
Spiecker, H., K. Mielikäinen, M. Köhl, J.P. Skovsgaard, 1996: Growth trends in European forests. European Forest Institute Research Report No. 5, Springer Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.
Stauffer, B., T. Blunier, A. Dällenbach, A. Indermühle, J. Schwander, T.F. Stocker, J. Tschumi, J. Chappellaz, D. Raynaud, C.U. Hammer and H.B. Clausen,1998: Atmospheric CO2 concentration and millennial-scale climate change during the last glacial period. Nature, 392, 59-62.
Stephens, B.B., 1999: Field-based atmospheric oxygen measurements and the ocean carbon cycle. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of California, USA.
Stephens, B.B., and R.F. Keeling, 2000: The influence of Antarctic sea ice on glacial-interglacial CO2 variations. Nature, 404, 171-174.
Stephens, B.B., R.F. Keeling, and M. Heimann, 1998: Testing global ocean carbon cycle models using measurements of atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentration. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 213-230.
Street-Perrott, F.A., Y. Huang, R.A. Perrott, and G. Eglinton, 1998: Carbon isotopes in lake sediments and peats of last glacial age: implications for the global carbon cycle, In: Stable Isotopes [Griffiths H. (ed.)]. BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd, pp. 381-396.
Takahashi, T., J. Goddard, S. Sutherland, D.W. Chipman, and C. C. Breeze, 1986: Seasonal and geographic variability of carbon dioxide sink/source in the ocean areas, Lamont Doherty Geol. Obs., Palisades, New York, 66 pp.
Takahashi, T., R. H. Wanninkhof, R. A. Feely, R. F. Weiss, D. W. Chipman, N. Bates, J. Olafson, C. Sabine, and S.C. Sutherland, 1999: Net sea-air CO2 flux over the global oceans: An improved estimate based on the sea-air pCO2 difference. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium CO2 in the Oceans, Center for Global Environmental Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan, 9-15.
Tans, P.P., and D.W.R. Wallace, 1999: Carbon cycle research after Kyoto. Tellus, 51B, 562-571.
Tans, P.P., T.J. Conway, and T. Nakazawa, 1989: Latitudinal distribution of the sources and sinks of atmospheric carbon dioxide derived from surface observations and atmospheric transport model. Journal of Geophysical Research, 94, 5151-5172.
Tans, P.P., I.Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, 1990: Observational constraints on the global atmospheric CO2 budget. Science, 247, 1431-1438.
Tans, P.P., J.A. Berry, and R.F. Keeling, 1993: Oceanic 13C/12C observations - a new window on ocean CO2 uptake. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 7, 353-368.
Taylor, J. A., 1989. "A stochastic Lagrangian atmospheric transport model to determine global CO2 sources and sinks: a preliminary discussion." Tellus B, 41(3), 272-285.
Taylor, J.A., and J. Lloyd, 1992: Sources and sinks of atmospheric CO2. Australian Journal of Botany, 40, 407-418.
Taylor, J.A., and J.C. Orr, 2000: The natural latitudinal distribution of atmospheric CO2, Global and Planetary Change, 26, 375-386.
Tegen, I., and I. Fung, 1995: Contribution to the atmospheric mineral aerosol load from land surface modification. Journal of Geophysical Research, 100, 18707-18726.
Thompson, M.L., I.G. Enting, G.I. Pearman, and P. Hyson, 1986. Interannual variation of atmospheric CO2 concentration. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 4, 125-155.
Thompson, M.V., J.T. Randerson, C.M. Malmstrom, and C.B. Field, 1996: Change in net primary production and heterotrophic respiration: How much is necessary to sustain the terrestrial carbon sink? Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 711-726.
Tian, H.Q., J.M. Melillo, and D.W. Kicklighter, 1998: Effect of interannual climate variability on carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Nature, 396, 664-667.
Toggweiler, J.R., 1999: Variation of atmospheric CO2 by ventilation of the ocean's deepest water. Paleoceanography, 14, 571-588.
Trolier, M., J.W.C. White, P.P. Tans, K.A. Masarie, and P.A. Gemery, 1996: Monitoring the isotopic composition of atmospheric CO2 - measurements from the NOAA Global Air Sampling Network. Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmosphere, 101, 25897-25916.
Trudinger, C.M., I.G. Enting, R.J. Francey, D.M. Etheridge, and P.J. Rayner, 1999: Long-term variability in the global carbon cycle inferred from a high-precision CO2 and delta 13C ice-core record. Tellus, 51B, 233-248.
Trumbore, S., 2000: Age of soil organic matter and soil respiration: radiocarbon constraints on belowground C dynamics. Ecological Applications, 10, 399-411.
Tschumi, J., and B. Stauffer, 2000. Reconstructing past atmospheric CO2 concentrations based on ice-core analyses: open questions due to in situ production of CO2 in ice. Journal of Glaciology, 46, 45-53.
Tyrell, T., 1999: The relative influences of nitrogen and phosphorus on oceanic primary production. Nature, 400, 525-531.
UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change), 2000: Methodological Issue. Land-use, land-use change and forestry. Synthesis report on national greenhouse gas information reported by Annex I Parties for the land-use change and forestry sector and agricultural soils category. Note by the Secretariat. Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice. FCCC/SBSTA/2000/3. Bonn, Germany. 48pp.
United Nations, 2000: The United Nations Energy Statistics Database, United Nations Statistical Division, New York.
UN-ECE/FAO (United Nations Economics Commision for Europe/Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), 2000: Forest Resources of Europe, CIS, North America, Australia, Japan and New Zealand (industrialized temperate/boreal countries) UN-ECE/FAO Contribution to the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. In: Geneva Timber and Forest Study Papers, No. 17, United Nations, New York, Geneva, pp. 445.
Valentini, R., G. Matteucci, A.J. Dolman, E.D. Schulze, C. Rebmann, E.J. Moors, A. Granier, P. Gross, N.O. Jensen, K. Pilegaard, A. Lindroth, A. Grelle, C. Bernhofer, T. Grunwald, M. Aubinet, R. Ceulemans, A.S. Kowalski, T. Vesala, U. Rannik, P. Berbigier, D. Loustau, J. Guomundsson, H. Thorgeirsson, A. Ibrom, K. Morgenstern, R. Clement, J. Moncrieff, L. Montagnani, S. Minerbi and P.G. Jarvis, 2000: Respiration as the main determinant of carbon balance in European forests. Nature, 404, 861-865.
Van de Water, P.K., S.W. Leavitt and J.L. Betancourt, 1994: Trends in stomatal density and 13C/12C ratios of pinus- flexilis needles during last glacial-interglacial cycle. Science, 264, 239-243.
Vitousek, P.M. and R.W. Howarth, 1991: Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea - how can it occur. Biogeochemistry, 13, 87-115.
Vitousek, P.M. and C.B. Field, 1999: Ecosystem constraints to symbiotic nitrogen fixers: a simple model and its implications. Biogeochemistry, 46, 179-202.
Vitousek, P.M., J.D. Aber, R.W. Howarth, G.E. Likens, P.A. Matson, D.W. Schindler, W.H. Schlesinger, D.G. Tilman, 1997: Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle: sources and consequesnces. Ecological Applications, 7, 737-750.
Voss, R., and U. Mikolajewicz, 1999: Long-term climate changes due to increased CO2 concentration in the coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model ECHAM3/LSG. Technical Report # 298, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Hamburg.
Wagner, F., S.J.P. Bohncke, D.L. Dilcher, W.M. Kurschner, B. van Geel, and H. Visscher, 1999: Century-scale shifts in early Holocene atmospheric CO2 concentration. Science, 284, 1971-1973.
Wallace, D.W.R., 1995: Monitoring global ocean carbon inventories. Ocean observing system development panel background., Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, 54pp.
Wand, S.J.E., G.F. Midgley, M.H. Jones, and P.S. Curtis, 1999: Responses of wild C4 and C3 grass (Poaceae) species to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration: a meta-analytic test of current theories and perceptions. Global Change Biology, 5, 723-741.
Wanninkhof, R., 1992: Relationship between wind-speed and gas-exchange over the ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, 97, 7373-7382.
Wanninkhof, R., and W.R. McGillis, 1999: A cubic relationship between air-sea CO2 exchange and wind speed. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 1889-1892.
Waring, R.H., J.J. Landsberg, and M. Williams, 1998: Net primary production of forests: a constant fraction of gross primary production? Tree Physiology, 18, 129-134.
Watson, A.J., and P.S. Liss, 1998: Marine biological controls on climate via the carbon and sulphur geochemical cycles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 353, 41-51.
Watson, A.J., P.D. Nightingale, and D.J. Cooper, 1995: Modeling atmosphere ocean CO2 transfer. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 348, 125-132.
WBGU, (Wissenschaftlicher Beirat der Bundesregierung Globale Umweltveränerungen) 1988. Die Anrechnung biolischer Quellen und Senken in Kyoto-Protokoll: Fortschritt oder Rückschlang für den globalen Umweltschutz Sondergutachten 1988. Bremerhaven, Germany, 76pp, (available in English).
Wigley, T.M.L., Richels, R., and Edmonds, J.A., 1996: Economic and environmental choices in the stabilization of CO2 concentrations: choosing the "right" emissions pathway. Nature, 379, 240-243.
Wigley, T.M.L., A. K. Jain, F. Joos, B. S. Nyenzi, and P.R. Shukla, 1997: Implications of Proposed CO2 Emissions Limitations. IPCC Technical Paper 4. [Houghton, J.T., L.G. Meira Filho, D.J. Griggs and M. Noguer (eds)]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Bracknell, UK, 41 pp.
Williams, S.N., S.J. Schaefer, M.L. Calvache, and D. Lopez, 1992: Global carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere by volcanoes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 56, 1765-1770.
Winguth, A.M.E., M. Heimann, K.D. Kurz, E. Maier-Reimer, U. Mikolajewicz, and J. Segschneider, 1994: El-Niño-Southern oscillation related fluctuations of the marine carbon cycle. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 8, 39-63.
Winn, C.D., Y.H. Li, F.T. Mackenzie, and D.M. Karl, 1998: Rising surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series site. Marine Chemistry, 60, 33-47.
Wofsy, S.C., Goulden, M.L., Munger, J.W., Fan, S.M., Bakwin, P.S., Daube, B.C., Bassow, S.L., Bazzaz, F.A., 1993: Net exchange of CO2 in a mid-latitude forest. Science, 260, 1314-1317.
Wong, C.S., Y.H. Chan, J.S. Page, G.E. Smith, and R.D. Bellegay, 1993: Changes in equatorial CO2 flux and new production estimated from CO2 and nutrient levels in Pacific surface waters during the 1986/87 El-Niño. Tellus Series B, 45, 64-79.
Woodward, F.I., 1987: Stomatal Numbers Are Sensitive to Increases in CO2 From Preindustrial Levels. Nature, 327, 617-618.
Woodward, F.I., and F.A. Bazzaz, 1988: The Responses of Stomatal Density to CO2 Partial-Pressure. Journal of Experimental Botany, 39, 1771-1781.
Woodward, F.I., M.R. Lomas, and R.A. Betts, 1998: Vegetation-climate feedbacks in a greenhouse world. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B, 353, 29-38.
Wu, J., W. Sunda, E.A. Boyle and D.M. Karl, 2000: Phosphate depletion in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Science, 289, 759-762.
Yang, X. and M.X. Wang, 2000: Monsoon ecosystems control on atmospheric CO2 interannual variability: inferred from a significant positive correlation between year-to-year changes in land precipitation and atmospheric CO2 growth rate. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 1671-1674
Yamanaka, Y., and E. Tajika, 1996: The role of the vertical fluxes of particulate organic matter and calcite in the oceanic carbon cycle: Studies using an ocean biogeochemical general circulation model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10, 361-382
Zeng, X.B., 1999: The relationship among precipitation, cloud-top temperature, and precipitable water over the tropics. Journal of Climate, 12, 2503-2514.



Other reports in this collection