Several critical factors, which may be part of pathways within countries to varying degrees, are suggested to be integral components of any international coastal-adaptation technology transfer (BCSD, 1992):
In addition, Kozmetsky (1990) and Heaton et al. (1994) have identified a number of mechanisms that would be particularly important in the development and implementation of science and technology policies to be responsive to global economic trends. All of these are applicable to enabling and accelerating coastal-adaptation technology transfer:
The creation of new strategic alliances is a way to leverage scientific and
technical talent, share financial resources and risks and extend access and
delivery of new knowledge and technologies to other countries. These alliances
may be intra- or intersectoral, but work best when participants share similar
strategic goals, mutually understand and respect their respective cultures,
and understand short- and long-term expectations. The PICCAP approach, for example,
involves the appointment of a national coordinator and country teams in each
of the ten participating countries. This strategy helps to ensure that technical
support is provided in a socially and culturally sensitive manner, that project
outputs are compatible with regional environmental and development strategies
and priorities and that regional institutions are strengthened for future activities
Development of innovative financial mechanisms may include linking ODA to foreign direct investment (BCSD, 1992), tax incentives for joint ventures in technology development and tax exemptions of income derived from technology transfer (Midlock, 1990). Chapter 5 presents a comprehensive overview of opportunities to overcome financial barriers to climate-related technology transfer.
Private-sector demand for adaptation technologies could be enhanced and refocused by international standards on coastal management. International standards allow companies to measure environmental performance, establish best practices across industries and establish a degree of accountability through certification, thus improving a company's worldwide competitive advantage (Heaton et al., 1994). For example, the ISO 14000 Series Standards Environmental Management System (EMS) provides a framework that responds to the short-term changes in coastal environments brought about by development pressures as well as the long-term changes resulting from natural forces. Adoption by countries could provide mechanisms necessary to integrate vulnerability assessment with existing coastal-adaptation practices.
As stated, NGOs can play an important part as intermediaries and knowledge translators in the technology-transfer process. As intermediaries, they can identify sources of currently available and emerging technologies, facilitate investment arrangements, and provide management, technical and other assistance to developing countries. As knowledge translators, NGOs can ensure that technology transfer is designed to create adaptive capabilities within the receiving country to adapt technology rather than simply to encourage its passive acceptance after transfer. NGOs can provide the foundation for the long-term relationship needed to replace casual or short-term connections between technology providers and users. Finally, they are particularly suited to link technology transfer to training and human-resource development and to public awareness raising.
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