Expanding technology transfer between countries will require addressing many
of the same barriers and undertaking activities similar to those discussed in
the previous section. Many of these activities will occur between governments,
although involving the private sector and community groups is important for
success. In the waste management sector, there are opportunities for North-North,
North-South and South-South bilateral cooperation. In fact, government-to-government
South-South exchanges are likely to be particularly valuable, because these
countries confront different waste management issues than developed countries
and may gain valuable insights from working together. Moreover, information
should also flow from the South to the North, since many developing countries
are implementing alternative waste management strategies with untapped potential
in developed countries.
Traditionally, national government agencies have been the primary actors for donor countries, although some municipalities have developed partnerships (such as sister city or "twinning" relationships). Some of these community-based programmes directly promote mitigation technologies, such as the Cities for Climate Protection Campaign. To date, more than 180 cities worldwide have committed to reduce their GHG impacts as part of the programme, and almost one-quarter of the proposed activities will address GHG emissions from waste management (ICLEI, 1997). Where national governments take the lead in organising or funding bilateral activities, municipal governments on both sides should be involved since agencies at these levels are frequently responsible for basic waste management services. Efforts should also be made to involve the community that will be directly affected by the project from the earliest stages of its development.
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