Significant achievements have been made in developing transport systems that reduce GHG emissions though the development of other concerns such as performance gains, safety, and energy intensity improvementshas been paramount in their development (IPCC, 1996). A large number of potential GHG emission-reduction options are technically feasible but only some are economically feasible. Some are cost-effective but vary among users, resource availability, know-how, institutional capacity and local market conditions (IPCC, 1996). Energy savings, performance improvements and reduction in private costs also affect their cost effectiveness. These options with potential to mitigate GHG emissions can be generally put into four categories: vehicle technology improvements, including for aircraft and marine vessels; fuel technology improvements, including alternative fuels; non-motorised systems; and infrastructure and system changes. Introducing these options may require justification of other objectives other than GHG mitigation such as competitiveness, security concerns, and improvement of quality of life or local environment improvement.
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