Participatory approaches have been shown to improve the quality, effectiveness, and sustainability of development projects, and strengthen ownership and commitment of government and stakeholders (World Bank, 1994a). For other (non-climate related) sustainable development policy objectives, there has been considerable experience with relevant climate mitigation technologies, ranging from large-scale electricity generating projects to small scale renewable technologies, to enhance energy security and rural economic development, and projects designed to promote energy efficiency. Technologies for adaptation to climate change impacts are required across all sectors, with the main ones being housing and settlement, health, agriculture, coastal zones, and forestry. From these projects, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that enhanced participation could improve the technology transfer system on climate-relevant technologies and indeed expand understanding of the way the system works.
Effective cooperation on climate-relevant technologies has been recognised to be dependent on being based on the actual need of the recipient country and adaptation to local circumstances through involvement of local stakeholders (OECD, 1998a; see also Chapter 5 on partnerships for technology transfer). It is therefore possible to make linkages between the increased use of participatory approaches and to improving technology transfer at all stages in the three pathways (government-driven, private-sector-driven, and community-driven) through participatory approaches.
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