There are some obvious research needs. Clearly, many basic physiological and ecological studies of the effects of changes in atmospheric and climatic conditions are necessary. Plant and animal species show a great deal of variation in their responses to these changes, and local research at this level is always necessary. However, the most pressing need over much of the region is for sound assessment and monitoring programs to establish current baselines and identify rates of change.
Thanks to Tony McMichael, Sandra Diaz, M. Mirza, and the government review teams for their constructive comments and to Alison Saunders and Margo Davies for help with the literature.
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