The Regional Impacts of Climate Change

Other reports in this collection


Aceituno, P., 1987: Aspectos tri-dimensionales del funcionamiento de la Oscilación del Sur en el sector sudamericano. Anales del Segundo Congreso Interamericano de Meteorología, November 30­December 4, 1987, Centro Argentino de Meteoróloges, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 5.1.1­5.1.6.
Aguilar, A.G. and M.L. Sanchez, 1993: Vulnerabilidad y riesgo en la ciudad de Mexico. Ciudades, 17, 31­39.
Alcamo, J. (ed.), 1994: IMAGE 2: Integrated Model of Global Change. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 318 pp.
Ando, M., R.U. Carcavallo, P.R. Epstein, 1996: Climate Change and Human Health [McMichael, A.M., A. Haines, R. Sloof, and S. Kovats (eds.)]. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 297 pp.
Aniya, M., R. Naruse, M. Shizukuishi, P. Skvarca, and G. Casassa, 1992: Monitoring recent glacier variations in the southern Patagonia Icefield, utilizing remote sensing data. International Archives of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 29(B7), 87­94.
Armentano, T.V., 1990: Soils and ecology: tropical wetlands. In: Wetlands: a Threatened Landscape [Williams, M. (ed.)]. The Alden Press, Ltd., Oxford, United Kingdom, pp. 115­144.
Austin-Bourke, P.M., 1955: The Forecasting from Weather Data of Potato Blight and Other Plant Diseases. WMO TN 42, Technical Report, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Baethgen, W.E., 1994: Impact of climate change on barley in Uruguay: yield changes and analysis of Nitrogen management systms. In: Implications of Climate Change for International Agriculture, [Rosenzweig, C and A. Iglesias (eds.)], U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, pp. 1-15.
Baker, B.B., J.D. Hanson, R.M. Bourdon and J.B. Eckert, 1993: The potential effects of climate change on ecosystems processes and cattle production on U.S. rangelands. Climate Change, 23, pp. 27-47.
Bakun, A. 1993: The California Current, Benguela Current, and Southwestern Atlantic Shelf ecosystems: a comparative approach to identifying factors regulating biomass yields. In: Large Marine Ecosystems: Stress. Mitigation and Sustainability [Sherman, K., L.M. Alexander, and B.D. Gold (eds.)]. AAAS Press, Washington, DC, pp. 199­221.
Batjes, N.H. and W.G. Sombroek, 1997: Possibilities for carbon sequestration in tropical and subtropical soils. Global Change Biology, 3, pp. 161-173.
Bazzaz, F.A., and K.D.M. McConnaughay, 1992: Plant interactions in elevated CO2 environments. Australian Journal of Botany, 40, pp. 547-563.
Bejarano, J.F.R., 1967: Lucha contra las enfermedades transmisibles por artropodos. Servicios especificos y servicios generales de salud. Segundas Jorn. Entomoep. Argentinas, 3, 471­507.
Bierregaard, J.R., T.E. Lovejoy, V. Kapos, A.A. dos Santos, and R.W. Hutchings, 1992: The biological dynamics of tropical rainforest fragments. Bioscience, 42, 859­865.
Boer, G.J., 1993: Climate change and the regulation of the surface moisture and energy budgets. Clim. Dyn., 8, 225­239.
Boer, G.J., N.A. McFarlane, and M. Lazare, 1992: Greenhouse gas-induced climate change simulated with the CCC second-generation general circulation model. J. Climate, 5, 1045­1077.
Bortenschlager, S., 1993: Das höchst gelegene Moor der Ostalpen "Moor am Rofenberg" 2760 m Festschrift Zoller, Diss. Bot. 196, pp. 329-334.
Bradley, D.J., 1993: Human tropical diseases in a changing environment. In: Environment Change and Human Health. CIBA Foundation Symposium. CIBA Foundation, London, United Kingdom, pp. 146­162.
Bravo, A., et al., 1988:The effects of climatic variations on agriculture in the Central Sierra of Ecuador. In: The Impact of Climate Variations on Agriculture Impact, Vol 2. Assessment in Semi-arid Regions [Parry, M.L, T.R. Carter, and N.T. Konijn (eds.)]. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 381­493.
Brenes-Vargas, A., and V.F. Savorido Trejos, 1994: Changes in General Circulation and their influence on precipitation trends in Central America. Costa Rica Ambio, 87­90.
Brinkman, R. and W.G. Sombroek, 1996: The Effects of Global Change Conditions in Relations to Plant Growth and Food Production. In: F. Bazzaz and W.G. Sombroek (eds), Global Climatic Change and Agricultural Production: Direct and Indirect Effects of Changing Hydrological, Soil, and Plant Physiological Processes. John Wiley, Chichester, UK.
Brown, B.E. and J.C. Odgen, 1993: Coral bleaching. Scientific American, 268, 44­50.
Bruijnzeel, L.A. and W.R.S. Critchley, 1994: Environmental Impacts of Logging Moist Tropical Forests. IHP Humid Tropics Programme, Series 7, UNESCO.
Budyko, M.I. and Y.U.A. Izrael (eds.), 1987: Anthropogenic climate change. Leningrad Hydromteoizdat, 378 pp. (in Russian)
Burgos, J.J., S.I. Curto de Casas, R.U. Carcavallo, and I. Galindez Giron, 1994: Global climate change influence in the distribution of some pathogenic complexes (malaria and Chagas' disease). Entomol. Vect. 1, 69­78.
Burgos, J.J., J. Fuenzalida, and C.B. Molion, 1991: Climate change predictions for South America. Climate Change, 18, 223­229.
Campos, M., A. Sanchez, and D. Espinoza, 1996: Adaptation of Hydropower Generation in Costa Rica and Panama to Climate Change. Central American Project on Climate Change, Springer-Verlag.
Campos, M., C. Hermiosilla, J. Luna, M. Marin, J. Medrano, G. Medina, M. Vives, J. Diaz, A. Gutierrez, and M. Dieguez, 1997: Global Warming and the Impacts of Sea Level Rise for Central America: an Estimation of Vulnerability. Workshop organized by U.S. EPA, Chinese Taipei, USCSP, Government of The Netherlands, and NOAA, February 24­28, 1997,Taipei, Taiwan.
Campos, M., 1996: Estimación de la Vulnerabllidad de los Recursos Hidricos, Marinos-Costeros y Agricolas en Centroamerrica, ante un Potencial Cambio Climático, USCSP/Proyecto Centroamericano sobre Cambio Climático (in press).
Canziani, O.F., 1993: Cambio globales: posibles efectos socioeconómicos en la Argentina. In: Elementos de Política Ambiental. Honorable Cámara de Diputados de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, pp. 779­789.
Canziani, O.F., 1994: La Problemática Ambiental Urbana. Seminbario sobre Gestión Municipal de Residuos Urbanos. UNDP/IEIMA, La Plata, Argentina, pp. 11­49.
Canziani, O.F., 1996: Urbanization and Environmental Problem (with Emphasis in Mercosur Countries). Seminar on European Community, Mercosur and Environment, February 1996, Brussels, Belgium, Environmental European Bureau, Brussels, Belgium.
Canziani, O.F., R.M. Quintela, J.A. Forte-Lay, and A. Troha, 1987: Estudio de Grandes Tormentas en la Pampa Deprimida, en la Provincia de Buenos Aires y su Incidencia en el Balance Hidrológico. Proceedings of the Symposium on Hydrology of Large Plains, 1983, Olavarria, Argentina, UNESCO, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Carcavallo, R.U., S.I. Curto de Casas, and J.J. Burgos, 1995: Blood-feeding Diptera: epidemiological significance and relation to climate change. I: General aspects, genera Anopheles and Aedes. Experimental and field data. Entomol. Vect. 2, 35­60.
Carcavallo, R.U. and A. Martinez, 1972: Life cycles of some species of Triatoma (Hemipt. Reduviidae). Canadian Entomology, 104, 699­704.
Cardich, A., 1974: Los yacimientos de la etapa agrìcola de Lauricocha, Perú, y los límites superiores del cultivo. Relaciones de la Sociedad Argentina de Antropología, 8, 27­48.
Castañeda, M.E. and V. Barros, 1996: Sobre las causeas de las ten
dencias de precipitación en el Cono Sur de America del Sur al este de los Andes. Report 26-1996, Center for Ocean-Atmosphere Studies.
Catala, S.S., 1991: The biting rate of Triatoma infestans in Argentina. Med. Vet. Entomol., 5, 325­333.
Catala, S.S., D.E. Gorla, and M.A. Basombrio, 1992: Vectorial transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi an experimental field study with susceptible and inmunized hosts. American J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 47, 20­26.
Caviedes, C.N., 1973: Secas and El Niño, two simultaneous climatic hazards in South America. Proc. Assoc. Amer. Geogr., 5, 44­49.
Cerri, C.C., M. Bernoux, and B.J. Feigl, 1995: Deforestation and Use of Soil as Pasture: Climatic Impacts. Interdisciplinary Research on the Conservation and Sustainable Use of the Amazonian Rainforest and its Information Requirements, Brasilia, Brazil, November 20­22, 1995, [Lieberei, R., C. Reisdorff, and A.D. Machado, (eds.)] MCT-CNPQ, pp. 177-186.
Cerri, C.C., M. Bernoux, B. Volkoff, and J.L Moraes, 1996: Dinamica do carbono nos solos da Amazonia. In: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimáticos do Brasil e desenvolvimento sustentado [Alvarez, V.H., L.E. Fontes, and M.P.F. Fontes (eds.)]. Visosa, pp. 61-69.
Cerveny, R.S., B.R. Skeeter, and K.F. Dewey, 1987: A preliminary investigation of a relationship between South American snow cover and the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115, 620­623.
Chambers, J.R., 1991: Coastal degradation and fish population losses. In: Stemming the Tides of Coastal Fish Habitat Loss [Stroud, R.H. (ed.)]. Proceedings of the Marine Recreational Fisheries Symposium National Coalition for Marine Conservation, Savannah, GA, USA, pp. 45­51.
Cole, J.E, G.T. Shen, and M. Moore, 1992: Coral monitors of El Niño-Southern Oscillation dynamics aspects across equatorial Pacific. In: El Niño: Historical and Paleoclimatic Aspects of the Southern Oscillation. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, and London, United Kingdom, pp. 349­375.
Colwell, R.R., 1996: Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science, 274, 2025­2031.
Conde, X., D. Liverman, M. Flores, and T.C. Ferrere, 1996: Vulnerabilidad del cultivo de maiz de temporal en México ante el Cambio Climatico. Taller de Vulnerabilidad, 1996, Montevideo, Uruguay.
Costa, M.J., J.L. Costa, P.R. Almeida and C.A. Assis, 1994: Do eel grass beds and salt marsh borders act as preferential nurseries and spawning grounds for fish? An example of the Mira estuary in Portugal. Ecological Engineering, 3, pp. 187-195.
Curto de Casas, S.I., R.U. Carcavallo, C.A. Mena Segura, and I. Galindez Giron, 1994: Bioclimatic factors of Triatominae distribution. Useful techniques for studies on climate change. Entomol. Vect. 1, 51­68.
da Rocha, H.R., 1996: CO2 flux over the Brazilian tropical rain forest and Cerrado vegetation. A review of recent measurements, and modeling data. In: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under Developing Countries Point of View [Pinguelli, R.L. and M.A. dos Santos (eds.)]. COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 68­75.
De Filippi et al., 1994: Los residuos sólidos urbanos en ciudades pequefias y medianas. Seminario de Gestión Municipal de los Residuos Urbanos. La Plata, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Instituto de Estudios e Investigaciones sobre el Medio Ambiente, IEIMA, Buenos Aires, pp. 51-62.
Del Carril, A., M. Doyle, V. Barros, and M.N. Nuñez, 1996: Sobre el Mínimo en la Descarga de los Rios Cuyanos, a Principios de la Década del 70. USCSP Workshop on Vulnerability Studies in Latin America, February 1996, Montevideo, Uruguay.
DENR-ADB, 1990: Master Plan for Forestry Development. Department of Environment and Natural Resources and the Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines, 523 pp.
Díaz, S., 1995: Elevated CO2 responsiveness, interactions at the community level and plant functional types. J. Biogeogr. 22, 289­295.
Di Pace, M.J. and S.A. Mazzuchelli, 1993: Desarrollo sustentable en la Argentina. Implicaciones regionales. In: Elementos de Política Ambiental [Goin, F. and R. Goñi (eds.)]. Honorable Cámara de Diputados, Buenos Aires, pp. 869­890.
Dixon, R.K., S. Brown, R.A. Houghton, A.M. Solomon, M.C. Trexler, and J. Wisneiwski, 1994: Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 263, 185­190.
Doake, C.S.M. and D.G. Vaughan, 1991: Rapid disintegration of the Wordie ice shelf in response to atmospheric warming, Nature, 35(6316), pp. 328-330.
Doberitz, R., 1969: Cross spectrum and filter analysis of monthly rainfall and wind data in the Tropical Atlantic region. Bonner Meterol. Abhandl., 11, 1­43.
Downing, T.E., 1992: Climate Change and Vulnerasble places: Global Food Security and country studies in Zimbawe, Kenya, Senegal and Chile. Research Report 1, Environmental Change Unit, University of Oxford, United Kingdom, 54 pp.
Easterling, W.E., 1990: Climate trends and prospects. In: Natural Resources for the 21st Century [Sampson, R.N. and D. Hair (eds.)]. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 32­55.
Epstein, P.R., T.E. Ford, and R.R. Colwell, 1993: Marine ecosystems. Lancet, 342, 1216­1219.
Escudero, J., 1990: Control Ambiental en Grandes Ciudades: Caso de Santiago de Chile. Seminario Latinoamericano sobre Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Instituto de Estudios e Investigaciones sobre el Medio Ambiente, October 1990, Bariloche, Argentina, IEMA, Buenos Aires, Argentina, pp. 229­236.
Eskuche, U., 1992: Sinopsis cenosistematica preliminar de los pajonales mesofilos seminaturales del nordeste de la Argentina, incluyendo pajonales pampeanos y puntanos. Phytoccenologia, 21, 287­312.
Ezcurra, E., 1990: The basin of Mexico. In: The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years [Turner, B.L, et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA, pp. 577­588.
Fankhauser, S. and R.S. J. Tol, 1997: The Social Costs of Climate Change: The IPCC Second Assessment Report and Beyond. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 1, pp. 385-403.
FAO, 1982: Conservation and Development of Tropical Forest Resources. FAO Forest Paper 37, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, p. 122.
FAO, 1992a, Yearbook of Fishery Statistics. Catches and Landings 1990, 70, Department of Fisheries, UN, Rome, Italy.
FAO, 1992b, Review of the Status of World Fish Stocks, Department of Fisheries, UN, Rome, Italy.
FAO, 1993: Forest Resource Assessment 1990: Tropical Countries. FAO Forest Paper 112, Food and Agriculture Organization at the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 59.
Fisher, M.J., I.M. Rao, M.A. Ayerza, C.E. Lascano, J.I. Sanz, R.J. Thomas, and R.R. Vera, 1994: Carbon storage by introduced deep-rooted grasses in the South American savannas. Nature, 266, pp. 236-248.
Forte-Lay, J.A, 1987: Evolución de las Características Hidrometeorológicas de la Llanura Pampeana Argentina. Seminario Internacional Hidrología de Grandes Llanuras. UNESCO Programa Hidrológico Internacional, Argentina. UNESCO, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Frére, M., J.O. Rijks and J. Rea, 1978: Agroclimatological Study of the Andean Zone. Inter-institutional Project FAO/UNESCO and WMO, WMO TN 161, Geneva, Switzerland, 298 pp.
Friederich, S., 1994: Wirkung veräderter Klimatischer factorem auf pflanzenschaedlinge. In: Klimaveraenderungen und Landwirtschaft, Part II Landbauforsc, [Brunnert, H. and U. Dämmgen (eds.)] Vlkenrode, 148, pp. 17­26.
Fuenzalida, P.H., B. Rosenblüth, and R. Sanguineti, 1993: Temperature Variations in Chile and Austral South America During the Present Century and its Relation With Rainfall. The Quaternary of Chile International Workshop, November 1­9, 1993, University
of Chile.
Gallopin, G., M. Winograd, and Y. Gomez, 1991: Ambiente y Desarrollo en América Latina y el Caribe: Problemas, Oportunidades y Prioridades. GASE, Bariloche, Argentina.
Gash, J.H.C. and W.J. Shuttleworth, 1991: Tropical deforestation: albedo and the surface-energy balance. Climatic Change, 19, 123­133.
Gay-García, C., L.G. Ruiz Suarez, 1996: UNEP Preliminary Inventory of GHG Emissions: Mexico. (In press)
GLASOD, 1990, Global Assessment of Soil Degradation, Project UNEP/ISRIC/Intnl Reference and Information Centre, Part 3: Natural Resources, UNEP 1992 Environmental Data Report, Nairobi, Kenya.
Gligo, N., 1995: Situación y perspectivas ambientales en América Latina y el Caribe. Revista de la CEPAL, 55, 107­122.
Glynn, P.W. 1989: Coral mortality and disturbances to coral reefs in the tropical eastern Pacific. In: Global Ecological Consequences of 1982­1983 ENSO [Glynn, P.W., (ed.)]. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, pp. 55­126.
Glynn, P.W. and L.D. Cruz, 1990: Experimental evidence of high temperature stress causes of El Niño-coincident coral mortality. Coral Reefs, 8, 181­191.
Goldenberg, J., L.C. Monaco, and I.C. Macedo, 1993: The Brazilian Fuel-Alcohol Program. Renewable Energy, Sources of Fuels and Electricity, UNCED [De Johansson, T.B., H. Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, and R.H. Williams (eds.)]. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 841­863.
Gómez, I.A. and G.C. Gallopin, 1991: Estimacion de la productividad primaria neta de ecosistemas terrestres del mundo en relacion a factores ambientales. Ecologia Austral, 1, 24­40.
González, N., 1990: La Contaminación del Agua. Política Ambietal y Gestión Municipal. Instituto de Estudios e Investigaciones sobre el Medio Ambiente, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Gorham, E., 1991: Northern peatlands: role in the carbon cycle and probable responses to climate warming. Ecol. Applic., 1(2), 182­195.
Greco, S., R.H. Moss, D. Viner, and R. Jenne (eds.), 1994: Climate Scenarios and Socioeconomic Projections for IPCC WG II Assessment. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group II, IPCC-WMO and UNEP, Washington, DC, 67 pp.
Grosse, S., 1993: Schistosomiasis and Water Resources Development: A Reevaluation of an Important Environment-Health Linkage. Working paper of the Environment and Natural Resources Policy and Training Project, EPAT/MUCIA, Technical Series No. 2., May 1993, University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI, USA, 32 pp.
Hack, W.H., 1955: Estudios sobre biologia del Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1834) (Hemiptera, Reduviidae). An. Inst. Med. Reg., 4, 125­134.
Haines, A., P.R. Epstein, P.R., and A. McMichael, 1993: Global health watch: monitoring impacts of environment change. Lancet, 342, 1464­1469.
Halpin, P.N., P.M. Kelly, C.M. Secrett, and T.M. Smith, 1995a: Climate Change and Central America Forest System. Background paper of the Nicaragua Pilot Project.
Halpin, P.N., P.M. Kelly, C.M. Secrett, and T.M. Smith, 1995b: Climate Change and Central America Forest System. Background paper of the Costa Rica Pilot Project.
Halstead, S.B., 1990: Dengue. In: Tropical and Geographical Medicine [Warren, K. and A.A.F. Mahmoud (eds.)]. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2nd ed., pp. 675­685.
Hansen, J., A. Lacis, D. Rind, G. Russell, P. Stone, I. Fung, R. Ruedy, and J. Lerner, 1984: Climate Sensitivity: Analysis of feedback mechanisms. In: Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity [Hansen, J.E. and T. Takahashi (eds.)]. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, 130­163.
Hardoy, J.E., D. Mitlin, and D. Satterthwaite, 1992: Environmental Problems in Third World Cities. Earthscan, London, United Kingdom, 302 pp.
Hastenrath, S., 1976: Variations in the low altitude circulation and
extreme climatic events in tropical America. J. Atm. Sc., 33, 202­215.
Hastenrath, S. and A. Ames, 1995: Recession of Yanamarey Glacier in Cordillera Blanca, Peru, during the 20th century. Journal of Glaciology, 41(137), 191­196.
Haxeltine, A. and C.I. Prentice, 1996: BIOME3: An equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model based on ecophysiological constraints, resource availability and competition among plant functional types. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, pp. 693-710.
Herrera-Basto, E., D.R. Prevots, M.L. Zarate, J.L. Silva, and J.S. Amor, 1992: First reported outbreak of classical dengue fever at 1,700 meters above sea level in Guerrero State, Mexico, June 1988. American Journal of Tropical Medicine, 46(6), 649­653.
Hoffman, J.J.A., W.M. Vargas, and S. Nunez, 1996: Temperature, humidity and precipitation variations in Argentina and adjacent sub-Antarctic region during the present century. Meteorologisches Zeitschrift, (in press)
Horel, J.D. and A.G. Cornejo-Garrido, 1986: Convection along the Coast of Northern Perú, during 1983: Spatial and Temporal variations of clouds and rainfall. Mon. Wea. Rev., 114, 2091­2105.
IPCC, 1990: Climate Change: The IPCC Scientific Assessment [Houghton, H.T., G.J. Jenkins, and J.J. Ephraums (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 365 pp.
IPCC, 1992: Climate Change 1992: The Supplementary Report to The IPCC Scientific Assessment. Prepared by IPCC Working Group I [Houghton, J.T., B.A. Callander, and S.K. Varney (eds.)] and WMO/UNEP. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 200 pp.
IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: The Science of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group I to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.J., L.G. Meiro Filho, B.A. Callander, N. Harris, A. Kattenberg, and K. Maskell (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 572 pp.
­ Schimel, D., D. Alves, I. Enting, M. Heimann, F. Joos, D. Raynaud, T.M.L. Wigley, E. Sanhueza, X. Zhou, P. Jonas, R. Charlson, H. Rodhe, S. Sadasivan, K.P. Shine, Y. Fouquart, V. Ramaswamy, S. Solomon, J. Srinivasan, D. Albritton, R. Derwent, Y. Isaken, M. Lal, and D. Wuebbles, Chapter 2. Radiation Forcing of Climate Change, pp. 65­131.
­ Dickinson, R.E., V. Meleshko, D. Randall, E. Sarachik, P. Silva-Dias, and A. Slingo, Chapter 4. Climate Processes, pp. 193­227.
­ Kattenberg, A., F. Giorgi, H. Grassl, G.A. Meehl, J.F.B. Mitchell, R.J. Stouffer, T. Tokioka, A.J. Weaver, and T.M.L. Wigley, Chapter 6. Climate Models -- Projections of Future Climate, pp. 289­357.
IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change: Scientific-Technical Analyses. Contribution of Working Group II to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 880 pp.
­ Kirschbaum, M.U.F. and A. Fischlin, Chapter 1. Climate Change Impacts on Forests, pp. 95­130.
­ Allen-Diaz, B., Chapter 2. Rangelands in a Changing Climate: Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation, pp. 131­158.
­ Noble, I.R. and H. Gitay, Chapter 3. Deserts in a Changing Climate: Impacts, pp. 159­189.
­ Bullock, P. and H. Le Houérou, Chapter 4. Land Degradation and Desertification, pp. 170­189.
­ Beniston, M. and D.G. Fox, Chapter 5. Impacts of Climate Change on Mountain Regions, pp. 191­213.
­ Öquist, M.G. and B.H. Svensson, Chapter 6. Non-Tidal Wetlands, pp. 215­239.
­ Fitzharris, B.B., Chapter 7. The Cryosphere: Changes and their Impacts, pp. 240­265.
­ Ittekkot, V., Chapter 8. Oceans, pp. 266­288.
­ Bijlsma, L, Chapter 9. Coastal Zones and Small Islands, pp. 289­324.
­ Arnell, N., B. Bates, H. Lang, J.J. Magnuson, and P. Mulholland, Chapter 10. Hydrology and Freshwater Ecology, pp. 325­364.
­ Acosta-Moreno, R. and J. Skea, Chapter 11. Industry, Energy, and Transportation: Impacts and Adaptation, pp. 365­398.
­ Scott, M.J., Chapter 12. Human Settlements in a Changing Climate: Impacts and Adaptation, pp. 399­426.
­ Reilly, J., Chapter 13. Agriculture in a Changing Climate: Impacts and Adaptation, pp. 427­467.
­ Kaczmarek, Z., Chapter 14. Water Resources Management, pp. 469­486.
­ Solomon, A.M., Chapter 15. Wood Production under Changing Climate and Land Use, pp. 487­510.
­ Everett, J., Chapter 16. Fisheries, pp. 511­537.
­ McMichael, A., Chapter 18. Human Population Health, pp. 561­584.
­ Brown, S., Chapter 24. Management of Forests for Mitigation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, pp. 773­797.
IPCC, 1996: Climate Change 1995: Economic and Social Dimensions of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Bruce, J.P., H. Lee, and E.F. Haites (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 448 pp.
­ Pearce, D.W., W.R. Cline, A.N. Achanta, S. Fankhauser, R.K. Pachauri, R.S.J. Tol, and P. Vellinga, Chapter 6. The Social Costs of Climate Change: Greenhouse Damage and Benefits of Control, pp. 179­224.
IPCC, 1996b: Technologies, Policies, and Measures for Mitigating Climate Change: IPCC Technical Paper 1. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Working Group II [Watson, R.T., M.C. Zinyowera, and R.H. Moss (eds.)]. World Meterological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 84 pp.
Junin, B., H. Grandinetti, J.M. Marconi, and R.U. Carcavallo, 1995: Vigilania del Aedes aegypti en la ciudad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Entomol. Vect., 2, 71­75.
Kadota, T., R. Naruse, P. Skvarca, and M. Aniya, 1992: Ice flow and surface lowering of Tyndall Glacier, southern Patagonia. Bulletin of Glacier Research, 10, 63­68.
Kalkstein, A., 1993: Health and climate change: direct impacts in cities. Lancet, 342, 1397­1399.
Karl, T.R., R.W. Knight, and N. Plummer, 1995: Trends in high frequency climate variability in the XX Century. Nature, 377, 217­220.
Katsouyanni, K., A. Pantazopoulu, and G. Touloumi, 1993: Evidence for interaction between air pollution and high temperature in the causation of excess mortality. Arch. Environm. Health, 48, 235­242.
Klinedinst, P.L., D.A. Wilhite, G.L. Hahn and K.G. Hubbard, 1993: The potential effects of climate change on summer season dairy cattle milk production and reproduction. Climate Change, 23(1), pp. 21­36.
Koopman, J.S., D.R. Prevots, M.A.V. Marin, H.G. Dantes, M.L.Z. Aqino, I.M. Longini, and J.S. Amor, 1991: Determinants and predictors of dengue infection in Mexico. American Journal of Epidemiology, 133, 1168­1178.
Kousky, V.E., M.T. Kagano, and I.A. Cavalcanti, 1984, A review of the Southern Oscillation: oceani-atmospheric circulation change and related rainfall anomalies. Tellus, 36A, 490­504.
Labraga, J.C., 1997: The climate change in South America due to a doubling in the CO2 concentration: intercomparison of general circula
tion model equilibrium experiments. International Journal of Climatology, 17, 377­398.
Labraga, J.C. and M. Lopez, 1997: A comparison of the climate response to increased carbon dioxide simulated by general circulation models with mixed-layer and dynamic ocean representation in the region of South America. International Journal of Climatology (in press).
LAC CDE, 1992: Our Own Agenda. Latin America and Caribbean Commission on Development and Environment. UNDP and IDB, in collaboration with ECLAC and UNEP, Santiago, Chile.
Lapenis, A.G., N.S. Oskina, M.S. Barash, N.S. Blyum, and Y.V. Vasileva, 1990: The late quaternary changes in ocean biota productivity. Okeanologiya/Oceanology, 30, 93­101. (in Russian)
Lebre-La Rovère, 1995: Mitigation measures for reduction of GHG emissions in Brazil. Revista de la Facultad de Ingeniería de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, 10(1­2).
Leemans, R., 1992: Modelling ecological and agricultural impacts of global change on a global scale. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 51, 709­724.
Lindroth, R.L., 1996: CO2-mediated changes in tree chemistry and tree-lepidopteran interaction. In: Carbon Dioxide and Terrestrial Ecosystems [Koch, G.W. and H.A. Mooney (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 105­120.
Liverman, D.M. and K.L. O'Brien, 1991: Global warming and climate change in Mexico. Global Environmental Change, 1(4), 351­363.
Löpmeier, F.J., 1990: Klimaimpaktforschung aus agrarmeteorologischer sicht. Bayer. Landw. Jarhb., 67(1), 185­190.
Mabberley, D.J., 1992: Tropical Rainforest Ecology. Blackie and Son Ltd., Glasgow and London, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 300 pp.
Magalhães, A.R. and M.H. Glantz (eds.), 1992: Socioeconomic Impacts of Climate Variations and Policy Responses in Brazil. UNEP, SEPLAN, Esquel Brasil Foundation, Brasilia, Brazil.
Malagnino, E. and J. Strelin, 1992: Variations of Upsala glacier in Southern Patagonia, since the late Holocen to the present. In: Glaciological Research in Patagonia (1996) [Naruse, R. and M. Aniya (eds.)] pp. 61­85.
Manabe, S. and R.T. Wetherald, 1987: Large scale changes of soil wetness induced by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. J. Atmos. Sci., 44, 1211­1235.
Martens, W.J.M., T.H. Jetten, and D.A. Focks, 1997: Sensitivity of malaria, aschistosomiasis and dengue to global warming. Climate Change, 35, 145­156.
Martens, W.J.M., L.W. Niessen, J. Rotmans, T.H. Jetten, and A.J. McMichaels, 1995: Potential impact of global climate chance on malaria risk. Environm. Health Perspect., 103, 458­464.
Martinez, A., R.U. Carcavallo, and A.F. Prosen, 1967: Los mosquitos posibles transmisores amarilicos en Argentina. Segundas Jorn. Entomoep. Argentinas, 1, 7­26.
Massera, O.R., M.J. Ordoñez, and R. Dirzo, 1996: Carbon emissions from Mexican forests: current situation long-term scenarios. Climate Change (in press).
Maul, G.A. (ed.), 1993: Climatic Change in the Intra-Americas Sea. UNEP/IOC, E. Arnold, London, United Kingdom, 384 pp.
McFarlane, N.A., G.J. Boer, J.P. Blanchet, and M. Lazare, 1992: The Canadian Climate Centre second general circulation model and its equilibrium climate. J. Climate, 5, 1013­1044.
Medina, E. and J. Silva, 1990: Savannas of the northern South America: a steady state regulated by water-fire interactions on a background of low nutrient availability. Journal of Biogeography, 17, 403­413.
Meisner, J.D., 1990: Effect of climatic warming on the southern margins of the native range of brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 47, 1067­1070.
Milliman, J.D., 1993: Coral reefs and their response to global climate change. In: Climatic Change in the Intra-Americas Sea [Maul, G.A. (ed.)]. UNEP/IOC, E. Arnold, London, United Kingdom, pp. 306­322.
Minetti, J.L. and W.M. Vargas, 1995: Trends and Jumps in South American Annual Precipitation South of Parallel 15º S, (in press).
Mitchell, J.F.B., C.A. Senior, and W.J. Ingram, 1989: CO2 and climate: A missing feedback? Nature, 341, 132­134.
Mitchell, J.F.B. and D.A. Warrilow, 1987: Summer dryness in northern mid-latitude due to increased CO2. Nature, 330, 238­240.
Molion, L.C.B., 1975: A Climatonomy Study of the Energy and Moisture Fluxes of the Amazon Basin with Consideration of Deforestation Effects. Diss., University of Wisconsin.
Molion, L.C.B., 1996: Global climate impacts of Amazonia deforestation. In: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under Developing Countries Point of View [Pinguelli, R.L. and M.A. dos Santos (eds.)]. COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 78­89.
Moreira, J.R. and A.D. Poole, 1992: Hydropower and its constraints. Renewable Energy. Sources of Fuels and Electricity, UNCED [De Johansson, T.B., H. Kelly, A.K.N. Reddy, and R.H. Williams (eds.)]. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 73­120.
Myers, N., 1992: Synergisms: joint effects of climate change and other forms of habitat destruction. In: Global Warming and Biological Diversity [Peters, R.L. and T.E. Lovejoy (eds.)]. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA and London, United Kingdom, pp. 344­354.
Neilson, R.P., 1995: A model for predicting continental-scale vegetation distribution and water balance. Ecological Applications, 5, pp. 362­385.
Ojima, D.S., W.J. Parton, D.S. Schimel, and C.E. Owensby, 1990: Simulated impacts of annual burning on prairie ecosystems. In: Fire in North American Tallgrass Prairies [Collins, S.L. and L.L. Wallace (eds.)]. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, OK, USA, pp. 99­118.
Omar, M.H., 1980: Meteorological Factors Affecting the Epidemiology of the Cotton Leaf Worm and the Pink Bollworm. WMO TN 532, WMO, Geneva, Switzerland.
Ottichilo, W.K., J.H. Kinuthia, P.O. Ratego, and G. Nasubo, 1991: Weathering the Storm: Climate Change and Investment in Kenya. ACTS Press, Nairobi, Kenya.
PAHO, 1976: Report of the Director. Washington, DC.
PAHO, 1994: Health Conditions in the Americas, Vols 1 and 2. Washington, DC.
PAHO, 1996: Report of the Director. Washington, DC.
Parkinson, R.W., R.D. De Laum, and J.R.White, 1994: Holocene sea level rise and the fate of mangrove forests within the Wider Caribbean region. Journal of Coastal Research, 10, 1077­1086.
Parry, M.L., 1992: The Potential Socio-Economic Effects of Climate Change in South-East Asia. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
Parry, M., T.R. Carter, and N.T. Konijn (eds.), 1988: The Impact of Climatic Variations on Agriculture. Vol. 2, Assessment in Semi-Arid Regions. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 764 pp.
Parry, M.L., J.H. Porter and T.R. Carter, 1990: Agriculture: climate change and its implications. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 5, pp. 318-322.
Paruelo, J.M. and O.E. Sala, 1992: El impacto de la desertificación sobre la capacidad de carga de las estepas patagonicas: sus consecuencias económicas. II Congreso Latinoamericano de Ecologia, Caxambú, Mina Gerais, Brazil.
Pauly, D., D.P. Much, J. Mendo, and J. Tsukayama, 1989: The Peruvian upwelling ecosystem: dynamics and interactions. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18. GTZ Gmbh. Eschbom, FRG, and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manilla, Phillipines, 438 pp.
Pauly, D., M.L. Palomares, and F.C. Gayanilo, 1987: VPA estimates of the monthly population length composition, recruitment, mortality, biomass and related statistics of Peruvian anchoveta, 1953 to
1981. In: ICLARM Studies and Reviews 15, Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE), Callao, Peru; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH, Eschborn, Germany; and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), Manila, Philippines.
Pauly, D. and I. Tsukayama, 1987: The Peruvian anchoveta and its upwelling ecosystem: three decades of change. In: ICLARM Studies and Reviews 15, Instituto del Mar del Peru (IMARPE), Callao, Peru; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH, Eschborn, Germany; and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), Manila, Philippines, 351 pp.
Pedgley, D.E., 1980: Weather and Airborne Organisms. WMO TN 562, Geneva, Switzerland.
Perdomo, M., 1996: Regional synthesis chapter for Latin America. In: Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventories -- Interim Results from the U.S. Country Studies Program [Braatz, B.V., S. Jallow, S. Molnar, D. Murdiyarso, M. Perdomo, and J.F. Fitzgerald (eds.)].
Perdomo, M., M.L. Olivo, Y. Bonduki, and L.J. Mata, 1996: Vulnerability and adaptation assessments for Venezuela. In: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change [Smith, J.B., S. Huq, L.J. Lenhart, L.J. Mata, I. Nemesova, and S. Toure (eds.)]. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 347­366.
Perillo, G.M. and M.C. Piccolo, 1992: Impact of SLR on the Argentinan Coastline. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Coastal Zones, March 9­13, 1992, Isla Margarita, Venezuela.
Pittock, A.B., 1980: Patterns of climatic variation in Argentina and Chile. Precipitation, 1931­1960. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1347­1361.
Porter, J.H., M.L. Parry and T.R. Carter, 1991: The potential effects of climate change on agricultural insect pests. Agricultural/Forest Meteorology, 57, pp. 221-240.
Rao, V.B., P. Satyamurty, and J.I.B. Brito, 1986: On the 1983 drought in Northeast Brazil. J. Clim., 6, 43­51.
Rasmuson, E.M. and T.H. Carpenter, 1982: Variations in tropical sea surface temperature and surface windfields associated with the Southern Oscillation/El Niño. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 1163­1168.
Reilly, J., N. Hohmann, and S. Kane, 1994: Climate change and agricultural trade: who benefits, who loses? Global Environmental Change, 4(1), 24­36.
Restrepo, M., A., Greer, D.F., and Moncada, L.H., 1972: Relationship between the environment and the paracoccidioimycosis. Proc. Symp. Paracoccidioimycosis, PAHO Publication 254, 84 pp.
Riede, K., 1993: Monitoring biodiversity: analysis of Amazonian rainforest sounds. Ambio, 22, 546­548.
Rosenblüth, B.H., H. Fuenzalida-Ponce, and P. Aceituno, 1997: Recent temperature variations in southern South America. Intl. J. of Climatology, 17, 1­19.
Rosenzweig, C., M.L. Parry, G. Fischer, and K. Frohberg, 1993: Climate Change and World Food Supply. Research Report No. 3, Environmental Change Unit, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom, 28 pp.
Rosenzweig, C. and M.L. Parry, 1994: Potential impact of climate change on world food supply. Nature, 367, 133­138.
Rubin, M.J., 1955: An analysis of pressure anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere. Notos, 4, 11­16.
Sala, O.E. and J.M. Paruelo, 1997: Ecosystem services in grasslands. In: G.C. Daily (de.), Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems, pp. 237-252. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Salati, E. and C.A. Nobre, 1991: Possible climatic impacts of tropical deforestation. Climate Change, 19, 177­196.
Salati, E. and P.B. Vose, 1984: Amazon Basin: a system in equilibrium. Science, 225, 129­138.
Santibañez, F. and J. Uribe, 1994: El Clima y la Desertificacion en Chile. En Taller en Nacional del Plan Nacional de Accion para Combatir le Desertificacion, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, pp. 17­24.
Schlesinger, M.E. and Z.C. Zhao, 1989: Seasonal climate changes induced by doubled CO2 as simulated in the OSU atmospheric
GCM/mixed layer ocean model. J. Climate, 2, 459­495.
Schubert, C., 1992: The glaciers of the Sierra Nevada de Merida (Venezuela): a photographic comparison of recent deglaciation. Erdkunde, 46, 59­64.
Sharp, G.D. and D.R. McLain, 1993: Fisheries, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and upper ocean temperature records: an eastern Pacific example. Oceanog., 5(3), 163­168.
Shen, G.T., 1993: Reconstruction of El Niño history from reef coral. Bull. of Intl. France études andean, Vol 112, pp. 125­158.
Shope, R.E., 1991: Global climate change and infectious diseases. Environm. Health Perspect., 96, 171­174.
Shukla, J., C. Nobre, and P. Sellers, 1990: Amazon deforestation and climate change. Science 247, pp. 1322­1325.
Siegenthaler, U. and J.L. Sarmiento, 1993: Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the ocean. Nature, 365, 119­125.
Skvarca, P., 1993: Fast recession of the northern Larsen Ice Shelf monitored by space images. Annals of Glaciology, 17, 317­321.
Skvarca, P., 1994: Changes and surface features of the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica, derived from the Landsat and Kosmos mosaics. Annals of Glaciology, 20, 6­12.
Soriano, A. and C. Movia, 1986: Erosón y desertización en la Patagonia. Intersciencia 11, pp. 77­83.
Stafford Smith, D.M. and G. Pickup, 1993: Out of Africa, looking in: understanding vegetation change. In: Range Ecology at Disequilibrium [Behnke, R., I. Scoones, and C. Keerven (eds.)]. Overseas Development Institute, London, United Kingdom, pp. 196­244.
Starke, L. (ed.), 1994: State of the World 1994A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. W.W. Norton and Company, New York, NY, USA, and London, United Kingdom, 265 pp.
Stone, T.A., P. Schlesinger, R.A. Houghton, and G.M. Woodwell, 1994: A Map of Vegetation of South America Based on Satellite Imagery. American Society for Photogrammetric Remote Sensing, Woods Hole Research Center, Woods Hole, MA, USA, pp. 541­551.
Suriano, J.M., L.H. Perpozzi, and D.E. Martinez, 1992: El cambio global: tendencias climticas en la Argentina y el mundo. Ciencia Hoy, 3, 32­39.
Tejada Miranda, F., 1996: Evaluación de la vulnerabilidad de los bosques al cambio climático en Bolivia. Climate Change National Programme, Ministry of Sustainable Development and Environment, La Paz, Bolivia.
Telleria, A.V., 1986: Health consequences of floods in Bolivia in 1982. Disasters, 10, 88­106.
Teves, N., G. Laos, C. San Roman, S. Carrasco, and L. Clemente, 1996: Vulnerability and adaptation assessments for Venezuela. In: Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change [Smith, J.B., S. Huq, S. Lenhart, L.J. Mata, I. Nemesova, and S. Toure (eds.)]. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands, pp. 347­366.
Torn, M.S. and J.S. Fried, 1992: Predicting the impacts of global warming on wildland fire. Climatic Change, 21, 257­274.
Treharne, K., 1989: The implications of the "greenhouse effect" for fertilizer and agrochemicals. In: The Greenhouse Effect and UK Agriculture 19 [de Bennet, R.M. (ed.)]. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, University of Reading, United Kingdom, pp. 67­78.
UNEP, 1992: Environmental Data Report 1991­1992, prepared by GEMS Monitoring and Assessment Research Centre, London, UK, in co-operation with World Resources Institute, Washington, DC and UK Department of the Environment, London. B. Blackwell Ltd, Oxford, UK, 408 pp.
Vargas, W.M., 1987: El Clima y sus Impactos, Implicancias en las inudaciones del Noroeste en Buenos Aires. Boletin Informative Techint, 250, Buenos Aires, 12 pp.
Vargas, W.M. and S. Bishoff, 1995: Statistical study of climatic jumps in the regional zonal circulation over South America. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 73(5), 849­856.
Vargas, W.M. and J.L. Minetti, 1996: Trends and jumps in South America annual precipitation south of the 15šS parallel. Climate Change
Velez, S.A., N. Nassif, J. Togo, and S. Wottips, 1990: Energetico socio-alimentario. Seminario sobre Latino-America, Medio Ambiente y Desarrollo, Instituto de Estudios e Investigaciones sobre el Medio Ambiente, October 1990, Bariloche, Argentina, IEIMA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Viglizzo, E.F. and Z.E. Roberto, 1997: On trade-offs in low input agroecosystems. Agricultural Systems (in press).
Viglizzo, E.F., Z.E. Roberto, M.C. Filippin, A.J. Pordomingo, 1995: Climate variability and agroecological change in the Central Pampas of Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 55, pp. 7-16.
Viglizzo, E.F., Z.E. Roberto, F. Lértora, Gay E. López, J. Bernardos, 1997: Climate and land-use change in field-crop ecosystems of Argentina. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. (In press)
Villers, L., 1995: Vulnerabilidad de los Ecosistemas Forestales. Country Study Mexico Report 6.
Vitousek, P.M. and R.L. Sanford, Jr., 1986: Nutrient cycling in moist tropical forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 17, 137­167.
Walker, G.T., 1928: Cerá (Brazil) famines and the general air movement. Beitr. Phys. d. Frein. Atmosph., 14, 88­93.
Westoby, M., B. Walker, and I. Noy-Meir, 1989: Opportunistic management for rangelands not at equilibrium. Journal of Range Management, 42, 26­274.
Wetherald, R.T. and S. Manabe, 1988: Cloud feedback processes in a general circulation model. J. Atmos. Sci., 45, 1397­1415.
WFC, 1987: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Ministerial Session. Beijing, China.
Whetton, P.H., A.B. Pittock, J.C. Labraga, A.B. Mullan, and A. Joubert, 1996: Southern hemisphere climate comparing models with reality. In: Climate Change, Developing Southern Hemisphere Perspectives [Henderson-Sellers, A. and T. Giambelluca, (eds.)]. Wiley and Sons, Chichester, United Kingdom, pp. 89­130.
Whitmore, 1984: Tropical Rain Forests in the Far East. Clarendon Press, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 352 pp.
WHO, 1985: Ten Years of Onchocerciasis Control in West Africa: Review of Work of the OCP in the Volta River Basin Area from 1974 to 1984. OCP/GVA/85.1B, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 113 pp.
WHO Commission on Human Health and Environment, 1992: Report of the Panel on Urbanization. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 127.
WHO, 1993: A Global Strategy for Malaria Control, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO, 1995: The World Health Report 1995: Bridging the Gaps. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 118 pp.
WHO, 1996: The World Health Report 1996: Fighting Disease Fostering Development. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
Winograd, M., 1995: Environmental Indicators for Latin America and the Caribbean: Toward Land Use Sustainability. GASE, in collaboration with OAS, IICA/GTZ, and WRI.
Wooster, W.S. and D.L. Fluharty (eds.), 1985: El Niño North: Niño Effects in the Eastern Subarctic Pacific Ocean. Washington Sea Grant Program, Seattle, WA, USA.
WRI, 1990­1991: Special Focus on Latin America, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, pp. 33­64.
WRI, 1992: World Resources 1992­93: A Guide to the Global Environment. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 385 pp.
WRI, 1996: World Resources 1996­97: A Guide to the Global Environment. World Resources Institute/United Nations Environment Programme/ United Nations Development Programme/The World Bank. Oxford University Press, New York, 342 pp.
Yañez, E., 1991: Relationships between environmental changes and fluctuating major pelagic resources exploited in Chile (1950­1988). In: Long-Term Variability of Pelagic Fish Populations
and Their Environment [Kawasaki, T., S. Tanaka, Y. Toba, and A. Taniguchi (eds.)]. Pergamon Press, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 301­309.
Zuidema, G., G.J. van den Born, J. Alcamo, and G.J.J. Kreileman, 1994: Determining the potential distribution of vegetation, crops and agricultural productivity. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 76(1/2), 163­198.

For Further Reading

Aceituno, P., 1988: On the functioning of the Southern Oscillation in the South America sector. Part I: Surface climate. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 505­524.
Anderson, J.M., 1992: Responses of soils to climate change. Advances in Ecological Research, 22, 163­210.
Biggs, G.R., 1993: Comparison of coastal wind and pressure trends over the tropical Atlantic: 1946­1988. Intl. J. Climatol., 13, 411­421.
Binet, D., 1988: Rôle possible d'une intensification des alizés sur le changement de repartition des sardines et sardinelles le long de la côte ouest africaine. Aquat. Living Resources, 1, 115­132.
Brinkman, R. and W.G. Sombroek, 1993: The Effects of Global Change on Soil Conditions in Relation to Plant Growth and Food Production. Expert Consultation Paper on Global Climate Change and Agricultural Production: Direct and Indirect Effects of Changing Hydrological, Soil and Plant Physiological Processes. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy, December 1993, 12 pp.
Busby, J.R., 1988: Potential implications of climate change on Australia's flora and fauna. In: Greenhouse Planning for Climate Change [Pearman, G.I. (ed.)]. CSIRO, Melbourne, Australia, pp. 387­398.
Campbell, B.D. and R.M. Hay, 1993: Will subtropical grasses continue to spread through New Zealand? In: Proceedings of the XVII International Grassland Congress, pp. 1126­1128.
Caviedes, C.N., 1984: El Niño 1982­1983. Geographical Review, 74, 268­290.
Cole, J.E., R.G. Fairbanks, and G.T. Shea, 1993: Recent variability in the Southern Oscillation. Isotopic results from Tarawa Atoll coral. Science, 260, 1790­1793.
D'Oliveira, A.S. and C.A. Nobre, 1986: Interactions Between Frontal Systems in South America and Tropical Convection over the Amazon. Preprints of the Second International Conference on Southern Hemisphere Meteorology, 1986, Wellington, New Zealand, AMS.
Eakin, C.M., 1995: Post-El Niño Panamanian reefs: Less Accretion, More Erosion and Damselfish Protection. Proceedings of the Seventh Coral Reef Symposium, vol. 1, June 22­27, 1992, Guam, University of Guam Press, Manqilao, Guam, USA, pp. 387­396.
Ehleringer, J.R. and C.B. Field (eds.), 1993: Scaling Physiological Processes: Leaf to Globe. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 388 pp.
Epstein, P.R., 1992: Cholera and the environment. Lancet, 339, 1167­1168.
Flenley, J.R., 1979: The late quaternary vegetational history of the equatorial mountains. Progress in Physical Geography, 3, 488­509.
Frasier, G.W., J.R. Cox, and D.A. Woolhiser, 1987: Wet-dry cycle effects on warm-season grass seedling establishment. Journal of Range Management, 40, 2­6.
Garms, R., J.F. Walsh, and J.B. Davis, 1979: Studies on the reinvasion of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme in the Volta River Basin by Sumulium damnosum s.l. with emphasis on the Southwestern areas. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 30, 345­362.
Gilles, H.M., 1993: Epidemiology of malaria. In Bruce-Chwatt's Essential Malariology [Giles, H.M. and D.A. Warrell (eds).]. Edward Arnold, London, United Kingdom, pp. 124-163.
Henderson-Sellers, A. and A. Hansen, 1995: Atlas of Results from
Greenhouse Model Simulations. Model Evaluation Consortium for Climate Assessment, Climate Impacts Centre, Macquarie University, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Netherlands.
Henderson-Sellers, A. and K. McGuffie, 1994: Land surface characterisation in greenhouse climate simulations. International Journal of Climatology, 14, 1065-1094.
Horel, J.D. and J.M. Wallace, 1981: Planetary scal eatmospheric phenomenas associated with the Southern Oscillation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 109, 813­823.
Mar del Peru (IMARPE), Callao, Peru; Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), GmbH, Eschborn, Federal Republic of Germany; and International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), Manila, Philippines, pp. 142­178.
Martinelli, L.A., A.V. Krusche, and R.L. Victoria, 1996: Changes in carbon stock associated to land-use/cover changes and emissions of CO2. In: Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under Developing Countries Point of View [Pinguelli, R.L. and M.A. dos Santos (eds.).]. COPPE, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 90­101.
Masera, O.R., 1995: Mitigation options in forest sector with reference to Mexico. Latin America GHG emissions and mitigation options. Revista de la Facultad de Ingenieria de la Universidad Central de Venezuela, 10(1­2).
Mata, L.J., 1996: A study of climate change impacts on the forests of Venezuela. In: Adapting to Climate Change: Assessment and issues [Smith, J., N. Bhatti, G. Menzhulin, R. Benioff, M. Budyko, M. Campos, B. Jallow, and F. Rijsberman (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag.
Medina, E., 1982: Physiological ecology of neotropical savanna plants. In: Ecology of Tropical Savannas [Hyntley, B.J. and B.H. Walker (eds.)]. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 308­335.
Mills, D.M., 1995: A climatic water budget approach to blackfly population dynamics. Publications in Climatology, 48, 1­84.
Myers, N., 1993: Questions of mass extinction. Biodiversity and Conservation, 2, 2­17.
Parker, C. and J.D. Fryer, 1975: Weed control problems causing major reductions in world food supplies. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 23, 83­95.
Peters, R.L., 1992: Conservation of biological diversity in the face of climate change. In: Global Warming and Biological Diversity [Peters, R.L. and T.E. Lovejoy (eds.)]. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, USA, and London, United Kingdom, pp. 59­71.
Rauh, W., 1985: The Peruvian-Chilean deserts. In: Ecosystems of the World: Hot Deserts and Arid Shrublands, vol. 12A [Evenari, M., I. Noy Meir, and D. Goodall (eds.)]. Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 239­267.
Reibsame, W.E., 1990: Anthropogenic climate change and a new paradigm of natural resource planning. Professional Geographer, 42(1), 1­12.
Reilly, J. and N. Hohmann, 1993: Climate change and agriculture: the role of international trade. American Economic Association Papers and Proceedings, 83, 306­312.
Reynolds, R.E. 1987: Breeding duck population, production and habitat surveys, 1979­1985. Trans. N. Am. Wildl. Nat. Resour. Conf., 52, 186­205.
Reynolds, J.F. and P.W. Leadley, 1992: Modelling the response of arctic plants to changing climate. In: Arctic Ecosystems in a Changing Climate, an Ecophysiological Perspective [Chapin III, F.S., R.L. Jefferies, J.F. Reynolds, G.R. Shaver, and J. Svoboda (eds.)]. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 413­438.
Riebsame, W.E., 1989: Assessing the Social Implications of Climate Fluctuations. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya.
Riebsame, W.E., 1990: The United States Great Plains. In: The Earth as Transformed by Human Action: Global and Regional Changes in the Biosphere over the Past 300 Years [Turner, B.L.
Riebsame, W.E. et al., 1995: Complex river basins. In: As Climate Changes: International Impacts and Implications [Strzepek, K.M. and J.B. Smith (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 57­91.
Riebsame, W.E., W.B. Meyer, and B.L. Turner II, 1994: Modeling land use and cover as part of global environmental change. Climatic Change, 28, 45­64.
Sharkey, T.D., 1985: Photosynthesis in intact leaves of C3 plants: physics, physiology and rate limitations. Botanical Review, 51, 53­105.
Smayda, T.J., 1990: Novel and nuisance phytoplankton blooms in the sea: evidence for a global epidemic. In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton [Graneli, E. et al. (eds.)]. Elsevier Science Publishers, New York, NY, USA, pp. 29­40.
Smith, T.M. and H.H. Shugart, 1993: The transient response of terrestrial carbon storage to a perturbed climate. Nature, 361, 523­526.
Solley, W.B., C.F. Merk, and R.P. Pierce, 1988: Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1985. Circular 1004, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington, DC.
Solomon, A.M., 1992a: A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. Journal of Biogeography, 19, 117­134.
Solomon, A.M., 1992b: The nature and distribution of past, present and future boreal forests. In: A Systems Analysis of the Global Boreal Forest [Shugart, H.H., G.B. Bonan, and R. Leemans (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, pp. 291­307.
Tol, R.S.J., 1994: The damage costs of climate change: A note on tangibles and intangibles applied to DICE. Energy Policy, 22, 436­438.
Troadec, J.-P., 1989: Elements pour une autre strategie. In: L'homme et les ressources halieutiques, essai sur l'usage d'une ressource commune renouvelable [Troadec, J.-P. (sous la dir.)]. IFREMER, Paris, France, pp. 747­795.
UNEP, 1997: Global Environmental Outlook. United Nations Environmental Programme, WRI, USA, Distributed by Oxford University Press and UNEP, 265 pp.
UNESCO, 1978: Tropical Forest Ecosystems: A State-of-Knowledge Report. UNESCO, UNEP, and FAO, Paris, France, 683 pp.
Van der Hammen, T., 1974: The Pleistocene changes of vegetation and climate in tropical South America. Journal of Biogeography, 1, 3­26.
Walsh, J.F., J.B. Davis, and R. Garms, 1981: Further studies on the reinvasion of the Onchocerciasis Control Programme by Simulium damnosum s.l. Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 32(4), 269­273.
Warren, C.R., 1994: Against the grain; a report on the Pio XI glacier Patagonia. Geographical Magazine, 66(9), 28­30.
WHO, 1992: Our Planet, Our Health. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
WHO, 1996: Climate Change and Human Health. Fide,[ McMichael, A.J., A. Haines, R. Siloff and S. Kovats (eds.)] WHO/EHG/96.7. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 297 pp.

Other reports in this collection