2. How Do Aircraft Affect Climate and Ozone?
3. How are Aviation Emissions Projected to Grow in the Future?
4. What are the Current and Future Impacts of Subsonic Aviation on Radiative Forcing and UV Radiation?
4.1. Carbon Dioxide
4.4. Water Vapor
4.6. Cirrus Clouds
4.7. Sulfate and Soot Aerosols
4.8. What are the Overall Climate Effects of Subsonic Aircraft?
4.9. What are the Overall Effects of Subsonic Aircraft on UV-B?
5. What are the Current and Future Impacts of Supersonic Aviation on Radiative Forcing and UV Radiation?
6 What are the Options to Reduce Emissions and Impacts?
6.1. Aircraft and Engine Technology Options
6.2. Fuel Options
6.3. Operational Options
6.4. Regulatory, Economic, and Other Options
7. Issues for the Future
This summary, approved in detail at a joint session of IPCC Working Groups I and III (San Jos�, Costa Rica . 12-14 April 1999), represents the formally agreed statement of the IPCC concerning current understanding of aviation and the global atmosphere.
Based on a draft prepared by: David H. Lister, Joyce E. Penner, David J. Griggs, John T. Houghton, Daniel L. Albritton, John Begin, Gerard Bekebrede, John Crayston, Ogunlade Davidson, Richard G. Derwent, David J. Dokken, Julie Ellis, David W. Fahey, John E. Frederick, Randall Friedl, Neil Harris, Stephen C. Henderson, John F. Hennigan, Ivar Isaksen, Charles H. Jackman, Jerry Lewis, Mack McFarland, Bert Metz, John Montgomery, Richard W. Niedzwiecki, Michael Prather, Keith R. Ryan, Nelson Sabogal, Robert Sausen, Ulrich Schumann, Hugh J. Somerville, N. Sundararaman, Ding Yihui, Upali K. Wickrama, Howard L. Wesoky
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