Climate Change 2001:
Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability
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9. Human Health


Executive Summary

9.1. Introduction and Scope

9.1.1. Summary of IPCC Second Assessment Report (1996): Potential Health Impacts of Climate Change
9.1.2. Population Health and its Significance as an Outcome of Climate Change

9.2. Research into the Relationship between Climate Change and Health: Caveats and Challenges

9.2.1. New Knowledge about Climate Change Impacts on Health
9.2.2. Characteristics and Methodological Difficulties

9.3. Sensitivity, Vulnerability, and Adaptation

9.4. Thermal Stress (Heat Waves, Cold Spells)

9.4.1. Heat Waves
9.4.2. Decreased Mortality Resulting from Milder Winters

9.5. Extreme Events and Weather Disasters

9.5.1. Floods
9.5.2. Storms and Tropical Cyclones
9.5.3. Droughts

9.6. Air Pollution

9.6.1. Gases, Fine Particulates Effects of Air Pollution, Season, and Weather on Health Future Changes in Air Quality
9.6.2. Aeroallergens (e.g., Pollen)

9.7. Infectious Diseases

9.7.1. Malaria Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Malaria
9.7.2. Dengue Modeling the Impact of Climate Change on Dengue
9.7.3. Other Mosquito-Borne Viruses
9.7.4. Leishmaniasis
9.7.5. Schistosomiasis
9.7.6. Chagas' Disease
9.7.7. Plague
9.7.8. Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease Tick-Borne Encephalitis
9.7.9. Rodent-Borne Diseases Leptospirosis Hantaviruses
9.7.10. Water-Related Infectious Diseases
9.7.11. Other Infectious Diseases

9.8. Coastal Water Issues

9.9. Food Yields and Nutrition

9.10. Demographic and Economic Disruption

9.11. Adaptation Options

9.11.1. Extreme Events and Natural Disasters
9.11.2. Malaria Epidemics

9.12. Secondary Health Benefits of Mitigation Policies

9.13 Research and Information Needs, including Monitoring

9.14. Cross-Cutting Issues

9.14.1 Costing the Health Impacts of Climate Change
9.14.2 Development, Sustainability, and Equity

9.15. Conclusion


Anthony McMichael (UK) and Andrew Githeko (Kenya)

Lead Authors:
R. Akhtar (India), R. Carcavallo (Argentina), D. Gubler (USA), A. Haines (UK), R.S. Kovats (UK), P. Martens (The Netherlands), J. Patz (USA), A. Sasaki (Japan)

Contributing Authors:
K.L. Ebi (USA), D. Focks (USA), L. Kalkstein (USA), E. Lindgren (Sweden), S. Lindsay (UK), R. Sturrock (UK)

Review Editors:
U. Confalonieri (Brazil) and A. Woodward (New Zealand)

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