Aviation and the Global Atmosphere

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Annex C: Acronyms, Abbreviations, and Units

1-D   One-Dimensional
2-D   Two-Dimensional
3-D   Three-Dimensional
ACAC   Arab Civil Aviation Commission
ADS   Automatic Dependent Surveillance
AEA   Association of European Airlines
AEAP   Atmosphere Effects of Aviation Project
AER   Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.
AESA   Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft
AFCAC   African Civil Aviation Commission
AMIP   Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project
ANCAT   Abatement of Noises Caused by Air Transport
ANDES   Aircraft Noise Design Effects Study
API   American Petroleum Institute
APU   Auxiliary Power Unit
ASK   Available Seat-Kilometers
ASM   Air Space Management
AST   Advanced Subsonic Technology
ATC   Air Traffic Control
ATFM   Air Traffic Flow Management
ATM   Air Traffic Management
ATP   Advanced Turboprop
ATR   Air Traffic Region
ATS   Air Traffic Services
ATTAS   Advanced Technology Testing Aircraft System
AVHRR   Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer
BC   Black Carbon
BWB   Blended Wing Body
CAEP   Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection
CCM3   Community Climate Model 3
CE   Centre for Energy Conservation and Environmental Technology
CFC   Chlorofluorocarbon
CFD   Computational Fluid Dynamics
CGCM   Coupled General Circulation Model
CI   Chemi-Ion
CN   Condensation Nucleus
CNS/ATM   Communications, Navigation, and Surveillance
CSIRO   Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
CTM   Chemical Transport Model
DAC   Dual Annular Combustor
DEF STAN   Defence Standards
DERA   Defence Evaluation and Research Agency
DISORT   Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer
DJF   December-January-February
DLR    Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt
DOT   Department of Transportation
DTI   Department of Trade and Industry
DTR   Diurnal Surface Temperature Range
DU   Dobson Unit
EASG   Economic Analysis Subgroup
EATMS   European ATM System
ECMWF   European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
ECON   Most Efficient Cruise Speed
ECS   Engine Control System
EDF   Environmental Defense Fund
EEI   Effective Emissions Index
EI   Emissions Index
EIDG   Emissions Inventory Database Group
EISG   Emissions Inventory Sub-Group
ENSO   El Niño Southern Oscillation
ERAA   European Regions Airline Association
ETOPs   Extended Twin Operations
EUROCONTROL   European Organisation for Safety and Navigation
FADEC   Full Authority Digital Engine Control
FANS   Future Air Navigation System
FEMs   Finite Element Models
FESG   Forecast and Economics Sub-Group
FIR   Flight Information Region
FLEM   Flights and Emissions model
FMS   Flight Management System
FPC   Focal Point on Charges
FSU   Former Soviet Union
FUA   Flexible Use of Airspace
GAMA   General Aviation Manufacturers Association
GCM   General Circulation Model
GDP   Gross Domestic Product
GFDC   Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory
GISS   Goddard Institute for Space Studies
GNBS   Global Navigation Satellite System
GOES   Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GPS   Global Positioning System
GSFC   Goddard Space Flight Center
GWP   Global Warming Potential
HALOE   Halogen Occultation Experiment
HC   Hydrocarbon
HCFC   Hydrochlorofluorocarbon
HF   High Frequency
HFC   Hydrofluorocarbon
HIRS   High-Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder
HSCT   High Speed Civil Transport
HYPR   Supersonic/Hypersonic Transport
IATA   International Air Transport Association
ICAO   International Civil Aviation Organization
ICAS   International Council on Aeronautical Sciences
ICCAIA   International Coordinating Council of Aerospace Industries Association
IFR   Instrument Flight Rule
IHPTET   Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine
IMC   Instrument Meteorological Conditions
IPCC   Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
IR   Infrared
IS92a   IPCC Scenarios 1992a
ISA   International Standard Atmosphere
ISCCP   International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
IWC   Ice-Water Content
IWP   Ice-Water Path
JGR   Journal of Geophysical Research
JJA   June-July-August
LACAC   Latin American Civil Aviation Commission
LaRC   Langley Research Center
LBO   Lean Blow Out
LES   Large Eddy Simulation
LIDAR   Light Detection and Ranging
LLNL   Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
LPP   Lean Pre-Mixed Pre-Vaporized
LRC   Long-Range Cruise
LS   Lower Stratosphere
LTO   Landing and Take-Off
LW    Long-Wave
MD   Mass Density
MIT   Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MRC   Maximum Range Cruise
MS   Middle Stratosphere
NASA   National Aeronautics and Space Administration
NAT   Nitric Acid Trihydrate
NCAR   National Center for Atmospheric Research
NCEP   National Centers for Environmental Prediction
NSA   Nitro Sylsulfuric Acid
NH   Northern Hemisphere
NIPER   National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research
NMC    National Meteorological Center
NMHC   Non-Methane Hydocarbons
NOA   North Atlantic Oscillation
NOAA   National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOxAR   Nitrogen Oxides and Ozone Measurements along Air Routes
NPRA   National Petroleum Refiners Association
OA   Objectively Analyzed
OAG   Official Airline Guide
OECD   Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
OEW   Operating Empty Weight
OPMET   Operational Meteorological
OPR   Overall Pressure Ratio
PAI   Propulsion/Airframe Integration
PAN   Peroxyacetylnitrate
PIANO   Project Interactive Analysis and Optimization
PMS   Performance Management System
PNA   Pacific North America
ppbv   Parts per Billion by Volume
ppmm   Parts per Million by Mass
ppmv   Parts per Million by Volume
PSC   Polar Stratospheric Cloud
PSC1   Type I Polar Stratospheric Cloud
PSC2   Type II Polar Stratospheric Cloud
RBQQ   Rich Burn Quick Quench
RF   Radiative Forcing
RFI   Radiative Forcing Index
RH   Relative Humidity
RNAV   Area Navigation
RPK   Revenue Passenger-Kilometer
RQL   Rich Quench Lean
RVSM   Reduced Vertical Separation
SAD    Surface Area Density
SAGE   Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment
SAM   Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement
SAO   Background Sulfate Surface Area Density
SARP   Standard and Recommended Practice
SA1   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 500 HSCT Fleet with 50% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SA2   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 1000 HSCT Fleet with 50% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SA3   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 500 HSCT Fleet with 1000% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SA4   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 1000 HSCT Fleet with 100% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SA5   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 500 HSCT Fleet with 10% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SA6   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 1000 HSCT Fleet with 10% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SA7   Sulfate Surface Area Density Scenario based upon 500 HSCT Fleet with 0% Conversion of Fuel Sulfur to Particles
SBSTA   Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice
SBUV   Solar Backscater Ultraviolet
SH   Southern Hemisphere
T/W   Thrust/Weight
UARS   Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
UDF   Unducted Fan
UiO   Universitet I Oslo
UKMO   United Kingdom Meteorological Office
UN   United Nations
UNIVAQ   Universita' degli Studi-l' Acquila
UNEP   United Nations Environment Programme
UT   Upper Troposphere
UV   Ultraviolet
UV-B   Ultraviolet-B
UVery   Erythemal Dose Rate
VOC   Volatile Organic Compound
WAFS   World Area Forecast System
WCRP   World Climate Research Programme
WMO   World Meteorological Organization
WWF   World Wide Fund for Nature

 
UNITS  

SI (Systéme Internationale) Units


Physical Quantity
Name of Unit

Symbol


length
meter
m
mass
kilogram
kg
time
second
s
thermodynamic temperature
kelvin
K
amount of substance
mole
mol

 

 


 

Special Names and Symbols for Certain SI-Derived Units


Physical Quantity
Name of Unit

Symbol of Unit

Definition of Unit

force
newton
N
kg m s-2
pressure
pascal
Pa
kg m-1 s-2 (= Nm-2)
energy
joule
J
kg m2 s-2
power
watt
W
kg m2 s-3 (= Js-1)
frequency
hertz
Hz
s-1 (cycle per second)


 

Decimal Fractions and Multiples of SI Units Having Special Names


Physical Quantity
Name of Unit

Symbol of Unit

Definition of Unit

length
ĺngstrom
Å
10-10 m = 10-8cm
length
micrometer
µm
10-6m = µm
area
hectare
ha
104 m2
force
dyne
dyn
10-5 N
pressure
bar
bar
105 N m-2
pressure
millibar
mb
1hPa
weight
ton
t
103 kg


 



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