Aviation and the Global Atmosphere

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2. Impacts of Aircraft Emissions on Atmospheric Ozon

Executive Summary


2.1. Relating Aircraft Emissions to Atmospheric Ozone

   2.1.1. Introduction

   2.1.1.1. Aircraft Engine Emissions
   2.1.1.2. Plume and Wake Processing of Engine Emissions
   2.1.1.3. Atmospheric Ozone

   2.1.2. Effects of Aircraft Gaseous Emissions

   2.1.2.1. Production of Ozone
   2.1.2.2. Sources and Sinks of NOx
   2.1.2.3. Sources and Sinks of OH and HO2
   2.1.2.4. The Response of Ozone to NOx in the Upper Troposphere
   2.1.2.5. The Response of Stratospheric Ozone Destruction to NOx
   2.1.2.6. Net Effects on Ozone

   2.1.3. Effects of Aircraft Aerosol Emissions

   2.1.3.1. Aerosols and Tropospheric Ozone Chemistry
   2.1.3.2. Aerosols and Stratospheric Ozone Chemistry
   2.1.3.3. Aircraft Aerosols and Heterogeneous Reactivity
   2.1.3.4. Net Effects on Ozone

   2.1.4. Indirect Effects Involving CO and CH

2.2. Impacts of Present Aviation on Atmospheric Composition

   2.2.1. Modeling Changes in Atmospheric Ozone from Present Aviation

   2.2.1.1. Effects of Aircraft NOx Emissions on Tropospheric Ozone
   2.2.1.2. Effects of Aircraft NOx Emissions on Stratospheric Ozone
   2.2.1.3. Effects of Aircraft Aerosol Emissions

   2.2.2. Observing Changes in Atmospheric Ozone from Present Aviation

   2.2.2.1. Observed Ozone Trends in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere
   2.2.2.2. Other Diagnostics of Large-Scale Aviation Impacts

2.3. Uncertainties in the Impact Assessment of Present Aviation: Implications for Use of Models in Predicting Future Change

   2.3.1. Uncertainties in Modeling Aviation Impacts

   2.3.1.1. Key Issues and Processes for Tropospheric Models
   2.3.1.2. Tropospheric Model Evaluation
   2.3.1.3. Key Issues and Processes for Stratospheric Models
   2.3.1.4. Stratospheric Model Evaluation
   2.3.1.5. Implications for Modeling Aviation Impacts

   2.3.2. Uncertainties in Observing Aviation Impacts

2.4. Conclusions and Overall Assessment of Present Aviation Impacts on Ozone

References

Bibliography of Model Studies


RICHARD DERWENT AND RANDALL FRIEDL

Lead Authors: I.L. Karol, H. Kelder, V.W.J.H. Kirchhoff, T. Ogawa, M.J. Rossi, P. Wennberg

Contributors: T. Berntsen, C. Brühl, D. Brunner, P. Crutzen, M. Danilin, F. Dentener, L. Emmons, F. Flatoy, J.S. Fuglestvedt, T. Gerz, V. Grewe, D.A. Hauglustaine, G. Hayman, Ø. Hov, D. Jacob, C. Johnson, M. Kanakidou, B. Kärcher, D. Kinnison, A.A. Kiselev, I. Köhler, J. Lelieveld, J.A. Logan, J.-F. Müller, J.E. Penner, H. Petry, G. Pitari, R. Ramaroson, F. Rohrer, E.Z. Rozanov, K. Ryan, R.J. Salawitch, R. Sausen, U. Schumann, F. Slemr, D. Stevenson, F. Stordal, A. Strand, A. Thompson, P. Valks, P. van Velthoven, G. Velders, Y. Wang, W. Wauben, D. Weisenstein

Review Editor: A. Wahner



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